University of California

Photochemical oxidant injury and bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infestation of Ponderosa pine: IV. Theory on the relationships between oxidant injury and bark beetle infestation


F. W. Cobb
D. L. Wood
R. W. Stark
J. R. Parmeter

Authors Affiliations

F. W. Cobb, Jr. was Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, Berkeley; D. L. Wood was Associate Professor, Department of Entomology and Parasitology, Berkeley; R. W. Stark was Professor, Department of Entomology and Parasitology, Berkeley; J. R. Parmeter, Jr. was Associate Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, Berkeley.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 39(6):141-152. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v39n06p141. May 1968.

PDF of full article, Cite this article


Certain aspects of insect-disease relationships, especially those concerning transmission of pathogens, have been studied extensively and their significance has been well established. However, the role of diseases as factors predisposing coniferous trees to bark beetle infestation has received only minor attention. There has been little effort to determine the extent of the association between disease and bark beetle infestation, the significance of predisposing diseases in the ecology of the beetles, or the effects of disease upon the host that may increase susceptibility to beetle attack.

The series of papers in this issue presents the results of studies to determine (a) the degree of association between photochemical atmospheric pollution injury to ponderosa pine and infestation by bark beetles (paper I), and (b) the changes in the physiology of diseased trees which might influence host susceptibility to bark beetles (papers II and III). The results show that oxidant injury does, in fact, predispose ponderosa pine to beetle infestation, and that the injury leads to physiological changes in the host which may be related to increased bark beetle susceptibility. The significance of these results in relation to the present knowledge on bark beetle ecology and host susceptibility is discussed in paper IV.

Literature Cited

Adlung K. C. Zur ökologie schädlicher Erdraupen der Gattung Euxoa Hb. (Noctuid: Lep.). Z. f. angew. Ent. 1958. 43:53-76.

Anderson R. F. The relation between host condition and attacks by the bronze birch borer. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1944. 37:588-96.

Anderson R. F. Host selection by the pine engraver. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1948. 41:596-602.

Atkins M. D. Behavorial variation among scolytids in relation to their habitat. Canad. Ent. 1966. 98:285-88.

Batra L. R. Ecology of ambrosia fungi and their dissemination by bettles. Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci. 1963. 66:213-36.

Bedard W. D. The Douglas-fir beetle. U. S. Dept. Agr. Circ. 1950. 817:1-10. DOI: 10.4039/Ent122459-5 [CrossRef]

Bega R. V., Dotta D., Miller D. R., Smith R. S. Jr. Root disease survey at Boggs Mountain State Forest, California. Plant Dis. Reptr. 1966. 50:439-40.

Bier J. E. The relation of some bark factors to canker susceptibility. Phytopathology. 1964. 54:250-53.

Bramble W. C., Holst E. C. Fungi associated with Dendroctonus frontalis in killing shortleaf pines and the effect on conduction. Phytopathology. 1940. 30:881-99.

Caird R. W. Physiology of pines infested with bark beetles. Bot. Gaz. 1935. 96:709-33. DOI: 10.1086/334518 [CrossRef]

Callaham R. Z. Sapwood moisture associated with galleries of Dendroctonus valens. Jour. Forestry. 1955. 53:916-17.

Callahan P. S. Infrared stimulation of nocturnal moths. Jour. Georgia Ent. Soc. 1966. 1:6-14.

Carter W. Insects in relation to plant disease. 1962. New York: Interscience Publ. 705p.

Chapman J. A. Field selection of different log odors by scolytid beetles. Canad. Ent. 1963. 95:673-76. DOI: 10.4039/Ent95673-7 [CrossRef]

Chapman J. A. The effect of attack by the ambrosia beetle Trypodendron lineatum (Oliver) on log attractiveness. Canad. Ent. 1966. 98:50-59.

Chapman J. A., Kinghorn J. M. Studies of flight and attack activity of the ambrosia beetle Typodendron lineatum (Oliver) and other scolytids. Canad. Ent. 1958. 90:362-72.

Chararas C. Scolytides des coniferes. Encycl. Entom. 1962. 38: Paris: P. LeChevalier. 555

Cobb F. W. Jr., Krstic M., Zavarin E. Effect of pine resin and turpentine constituents on Fomes annosus and four species of Ceratocystis (Abstr.). Phytopathology. 1967. 57:806-07.

Craighead F. C. Insects in their relation to the chestnut bark disease. Science. 1916. 43:133-35. DOI: 10.1126/science.43.1100.133-a [CrossRef]

Craighead F. C. Bark beetle epidemics and rainfall deficiency. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1925. 18:577-86.

Craighead F. C. Interrelation of tree bark beetles (Dendroctonus) and blue stains. Jour. Forestry. 1928. 26:886-87.

Craighead F. C., St. George R. A. Field observations on the dying of pines infected with the blue stain fungus, Ceratostomella pini Münch. Phytopathology. 1940. 30:976-79.

Craigie J. H. An experimental investigation of sex in the rust fungi. Phytopathology. 1931. 21:1001-40.

Ehrlich J. A preliminary study of root diseases in western white pine. Northern Rocky Mt. Forest and Range Exp. Sta. Res. Paper. 1939. 1:1-11. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.69382 [CrossRef]

Evans W. G. Morphology of the infra-red sense organs of Melanophila acuminata (Buprestidae: Coleoptera). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 1966. 59:873-77.

Franke-Grossmann H. Rotfäule und Riesenbastkäfer-eine Gefahr für die Sitkafichte auf öd- und Ackeraufforstungen Schleswig-Holsteins. Forst u. Holz. 1948. 3:232-35.

Franke-Grossmann H. Populationsdynamische Faktoren bei Massenvermehrung des Dendroctonus micans Kug. an der Sitkafichte in Schleswig-Holstein. Verhandl. deut. Ges. Entomol. 1954. pp.108-17.

Franke-Grossmann H. Some new aspects in forest entomology. Ann. Rev. Ent. 1963. 8:415-38. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.en.08.010163.002215 [CrossRef]

Furniss M. M. Susceptibility of fire-injured Douglas fir to bark beetle attack in southern Idaho. Jour. Forestry. 1965. 63:8-11.

Gara R. I., Vité J. P., Cramer H. H. Manipulation of Dendroctonus frontalis by use of a population aggregating pheromone. Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. 1965. 23:55-66.

Goeden R. D., Norris D. N. Jr. Attraction of Scolytus quadrispinosus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to Carya spp. for oviposition. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 1964. 57:141-46.

Gohrn V., Henriksen H. A., Petersen B. B. Iagttagelser over Hylesinus (Dendroctonus) micans. Biologi Undersogelser af to angreb på sitkagran. Bekaempelsesforsog. Forstl. Forsoksv. Danm. 1954. 21:383-433.

Graham K. Release by flight exercise of a chemotropic response from photopositive domination in a scolytid beetle. Nature. 1959. 184:283-84. DOI: 10.1038/184283b0 [CrossRef]

Graham K. Fungal-insect mutualism in trees and timber. Ann. Rev. Ent. 1967. 12:105-26. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.en.12.010167.000541 [CrossRef]

Graham S. A., Harrison R. P. Insect attacks and Hypoxylon infections in aspen. Jour. Forestry. 1954. 52:741-43.

Hall R. C. Environmental factors associated with outbreaks by the western pine beetle and the California five-spined pine engraver in California. Proc. Tenth Int. Congr. Ent. 1958. 4:341-47.

Hartig R. Die Zersetzungserscheinungen des Holzes der Nadelholzbäume und der Eiche in Forstlicher, Botanischer und Chemischer Richtung. 1878. Berlin: Julius Springer. 151p. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.25641 [CrossRef]

Hartigan C. Some observations on the effect of Phytophthora in Monterey pine. Forest and Timber. 1964. 2:5-6.

Hawksworth F. G. Dwarf mistletoe of ponderosa pine in the southwest. U. S. Dept. Agri. Tech. Bull. 1961. 1246:1-112.

Heikkenen H. J., Hrutfiord B. F. Dendroctonus pseudotsugae: a hypothesis regarding its primary attractant. Science. 1965. 150:1457-59.

Heller R. C., McCambridge W. J., Aldrich R. C., Weber F. P. The use of multispectral sensing techniques to detect ponderosa pine trees under stress from insect or pathogenic organisms. 1966. U. S. Dept. Agr., Forest Serv. 60p. Pacific Southwest For. and Range Exp. Sta. Ann. Progress Rept.

Henson W. R. Laboratory studies on the adult behavior of Conophthorus coniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). III. Flight. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 1962. 55:524-30.

Hetrick L. A. Some overlooked relationships of southern pine beetle. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1949. 42:466-69.

Jacobs M. R. The effects of wind on trees. Austral. For. 1936. 1:25-32. DOI: 10.1080/00049158.1936.10675103 [CrossRef]

Johnson P. C. Attractiveness of lightning struck ponderosa pine trees to Dendroctonus brevicomis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 1966. 59:615

Jorgensen E., Petersen B. B. Angreb of Fomes annosus (Fr.) Cke. og Hylesinus piniperda L. pa Pinus sylvestris L. Djurslands Plantager. Danskskovfor. Tidsskr. 1951. 36:453-79.

Kangas E., Perttunen V., Oksanen H., Rinne M. Orientation of Blastophagus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to its breeding material. Attractant effect of $$alpha$$-terpineol isolated from pine rind. Ann. Ent. Fenn. 1965. 31:61-73.

Kimmins J. P. The responses of Ips confusus LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to certain wave lengths of electromagnetic radiation in the laboratory 1966. p.62. M.S. Thesis, Univ. of California, Berkeley,

Lawrence J. F. The taxonomy and biology of the Ciidae (Coleoptera) of California 1965. p.438. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of California, Berkeley,

Leach J. G. Insect transmission of plant diseases. 1940. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. 615p.

Lejeune R. R., McMullen L. H., Atkins M. D. The influence of logging on Douglas fir beetle populations. Forestry Chron. 1961. 37:308-14.

Lorio P. L. Jr. Phytophthora cinnamomi and Pythium species associated with loblolly pine decline in Louisiana. Plant Dis. Reptr. 1966. 50:596-97.

Massey C. L., Wygant N. D. Biology and control of the Engelmann spruce beetle in Colorado. U. S. Dept. Agr. Circ. 1954. 944:1-35.

Mathre D. E. Survey of Ceratocystis spp. associated with bark beetles in California. Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. 1964a. 22:353-62.

Mathre D. E. Pathogenicity of Ceratocystis ips and Ceratocystis minor to Pinus ponderosa. Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. 1964b. 22:363-88.

McLarty H. R. Perennial canker of apple trees. Canad. Jour. Res. 1933. 8:492-507. DOI: 10.1139/cjr33-051 [CrossRef]

McMullen L. H., Atkins M. D. On the flight and host selection of the Douglas fir beetle Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopk. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Canad. Ent. 1962. 94:1309-25.

Miller J. M., Keen F. P. Biology and control of the western pine beetle. U. S. Dept. Agri. Misc. Publ. 1960. 800:381

Munch E. Die Blaufäule des Nadelholzes. Naturwiss. Z. Forst.-Landwirtsch. 1907. 6:297-323.

Nelson R. M. Effect of bluestain fungi on southern pines attacked by bark beetles. Phytopathol. Z. 1934. 7:327-53.

Nelson R. M., Beal J. A. Experiments with blue stain fungi in southern pines. Association of blue stain with bark beetles. Phytopathology. 1929. 19:1101-06.

Paviour-Smith K. The fruiting bodies of macrofungi as habitats for beetles of the family Ciidae (Coleoptera). Oikas. Acta Oecologica Scandinavica. 1960. 11:43-71. DOI: 10.2307/3564883 [CrossRef]

Person H. L. Theory in explanation of the selection of certain trees by the western pine beetle. Jour. Forestry. 1931. 29:696-99.

Perttunen V. Reaction of two bark beetle species. Hylurgops palliatus Gyll. and Hylastes ater Payk. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to the terpene $$alpha$$-pinene. Ann. Ent. Fenn. 1957. 23:101-10.

Perttunen V. Effect of temperature on the light reactions of Blastophagus piniperda L. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Ann. Ent. Fenn. 1959. 25:65-71.

Pitman G. B. Studies on the pheromone of Ips confusus (LeConte) III. The influence of host material on pheromone production. Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. 1966. 23:147-58.

Reid R. W. Moisture changes in lodgepole pine before and after attack by the mountain pine beetle. Forestry Chron. 1961. 37:368-403.

Reid R. W. Biology of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus monticolae Hopkins, in the East Kootenay region of British Columbia. II. Behavior in the host, fecundity, and internal changes in the female. Canad. Ent. 1962. 94:605-13.

Reid R. W. Biology of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus monticolae Hopkins, in the East Kootenay region of British Columbia. III. Interaction between the beetle and its host, with emphasis on brood mortality and survival. Canad. Ent. 1963. 95:225-38.

Rudinsky J. A. Factors affecting the population density of bark beetles. Proc. Int. Union Forest Res. Organ. Thirteenth Congress, Vienna, 1961. Teil 2, Band. 1962a. 1:11-24.

Rudinsky J. A. Ecology of Scolytidae. Ann. Rev. Ent. 1962b. 7:327-48. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.en.07.010162.001551 [CrossRef]

Rudinsky J. A. Response of Dendroctonus psemdotsugae Hopkins to volatile attractants. Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. 1963. 22:22-38.

Rudinsky J. A. Scolytid beetles associated with Douglas fir: response to terpenes. Science. 1966a. 152:218-19. DOI: 10.1126/science.152.3719.218 [CrossRef]

Rudinsky J. A. Host selection and invasion by the Douglas fir beetle Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins in coastal Douglas-fir forests. Canad. Ent. 1966b. 98:98-111.

Rudinsky J. A., Daterman G. E. Field studies on flight patterns and olfactory responses of ambrosia beetles in Douglas-fir forests of western Oregon. Canad. Ent. 1964. 96:1339-52. DOI: 10.4039/Ent961339-10 [CrossRef]

Rudinsky J. A., Vité J. P. Effects of temperature upon the activity and the behavior of the Douglas fir beetle. Forest Sci. 1956. 2:258-67.

Schmidberger J. Über Bostrichus dispar. Kollar, Naturgeschichte der Schädlichen Insekten in Bezug auf Landw. u. Forstkunde. 1837. Vienna: Beck. (See Fronke-Grossman, 1963.)

Schmidberger F. Pathogenese der Borkenkäfer-Epidemie 1946-50 in Nordwest Deutschland. Forstl. Fak. Univ. Göttingen. 1955. 13/14:135

Shepherd R. F. Factors influencing the orientation and rates of activity of Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Canad. Ent. 1966. 98:507-18.

Shepherd R. F., Watson J. A. Blue stain fungi associated with the mountain pine beetle. Bi-monthly Progress Rept. Canad. Dept. Agr., Div. For. Biol. 1959. 15:2-3.

Silverstein R. M., Brownlee R. G., Bellas T. E., Wood D. L., Browne L. E. Brevicomin: principal sex attractant in the frass of the female western pine bettle. Science. 1968. 159:889-91.

Smith R. H. Resin quality as a factor in the resistance of pines to bark beetles. Breeding Pest-Resistant Trees. 1966. New York: Pergamon Press. p. 189-96. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-08-011764-5.50044-4 [CrossRef]

St. George R. A. Drought affected and injured trees attractive to bark beetles. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1930. 23:825-28.

Stark R. W. Recent trends in forest entomology. Ann. Rev. Ent. 1965. 10:303-24. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.en.10.010165.001511 [CrossRef]

Stillwell M. A. Woodwasps (Siricidae) in conifers and the associated fungus, Stereum chailletii, in eastern Canada. Forest Sci. 1966. 12:121-28.

Struble G. R. The fir engraver, a serious enemy of western true firs. U. S. Dept. Agr. Production Res. Rept. 1957. 11:1-18.

Struble G. R. Attack pattern of mountain pine beetle in suger pine stands. U. S. Dept. Agr. Forest Serv. Res. Note. 1965. PSW-60:1-7.

Thatcher R. C. Bark beetles affecting southern pines: a review of current knowledge. U. S. Dept. Agr. Southern For. Exp. Sta. Occasional Paper. 1960. 180:1-25.

Thomas G. M., Wright K. H. Silver fir beetles. U. S. Dept. Agr. Forest Pest Leaf. 1961. 60:1-7.

Thorsteinson A. J. Host selection in phytophagous insects. Ann. Rev. Ent. 1960. 5:193-218. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.en.05.010160.001205 [CrossRef]

Tsao C. H. Flight activity and response to light in the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.). Jour. Georgia Ent. Soc. 1966. 1:11-16.

Vité J. P. The influence of water supply on oleoresin exudation pressure and resistance to bark beetle attack in Pinus ponderosa. Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. 1961. 21:37-66.

Vité J. P., Gara R. I. Volatile attractants from ponderosa pine attacked by bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. 1962. 21:251-74.

Vité J. P., Wood D. L. A study on the applicability of the measurement of oleoresin exudation pressure in determining susceptibility of second growth ponderosa pine to bark beetle infestation. Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. 1961. 21:67-78.

Wagener W. W., Cave M. S. Pine killing by the root fungus, Fomes annosus, in California. Jour. Forestry. 1946. 44:47-54.

Wagener W. W., Mielke J. L. A staining fungus root disease in ponderosa, jeffrey, and pinyon pines. Plant Dis. Reptr. 1961. 45:831-35.

Wallace P. P. Certain effects of defoliation of decidous trees. Conn. Exp. Sta. Bull. 1944. 488:358-72.

Weber F. P. Exploration of changes in reflected and emitted radiation properties for early remote detection of tree vigor decline 1965. p.101. M.F. Thesis, School of Natural Resources, Univ. of Michigan,

Wickman B. E. Mortality and growth reduction of white fir following defoliation by the Douglas fir tussock moth. U. S. Dept. Agr. Forest Serv. Res. Paper. 1963. PSW-7:1-15.

Wood D. L. Studies on host selection by Ips confusus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) with special reference to Hopkins’ host selection principle. Univ. Calif. Publ. in Ent. 1963. 27:241-82.

Wood D. L., Vité J. P. Studies on the host selection behavior of Ips confusus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) attacking Pinus ponderosa. Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. 1961. 21:79-96.

Wood D. L., Browne L. E., Silverstein R. M., Rodin J. O. Sex pheromones of bark beetles. I. Mass production, bioassay, source and isolation of the sex pheromone of Ips confusus (LeC). Jour. Insect Physiol. 1966. 12:522-36.

Cobb F, Wood D, Stark R, Parmeter J. 1968. Photochemical oxidant injury and bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infestation of Ponderosa pine: IV. Theory on the relationships between oxidant injury and bark beetle infestation. Hilgardia 39(6):141-152. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v39n06p141
Webmaster Email: wsuckow@ucanr.edu