Hilgardia
Hilgardia
Hilgardia
University of California
Hilgardia

Studies of two parasites of olive scale, Parlatoria oleae (Colvée): IV. Biological control of Parlatoria oleae (Colvée) through the compensatory action of two introduced parasites

Authors

C. B. Huffaker
C. E. Kennett

Authors Affiliations

C. B. Huffaker was Professor of Entomology and Entomologist in the Experiment Station, Berkeley; C. E. Kennett was Associate Specialist in the Experiment Station, Berkeley.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 37(9):283-335. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v37n09p283. March 1966.

PDF of full article, Cite this article

Abstract

The competitive population interactions between Aphytis maculicornis and Coccophagoides utilis were analyzed in order to determine their roles in controlling olive scale, Parlatoria oleae, in California olive groves. There is strong evidence that the two parasites working together give better control of olive scale than does A. maculicornis working alone. Conclusions are based on observations of parasite populations at selected groves over a period of five years.

K-values for various factors affecting olive scale mortality were developed in order to measure and assess the controlling effects of these two parasites on olive scale from generation to generation.

Literature Cited

Arthur A. P., Stainer J. E. R., Turnbull A. L. The interaction between Orgilus obscurator (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Temelucha interruptor (Grav.) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), parasites of the pine shoot moth, Rhyacionia buoliana (Schiff.) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae). Canad. Ent. 1964. 37(9):233-54.

Broodryk S. W., Doutt R. L. The biology of Coccophagoides utilis Doutt (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Hilgardia. 1966. 37(9):233-54. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v37n09p233 [CrossRef]

Chamberlain T. R. The wheat jointworm in Oregon, with special reference to its dispersion, injury, and parasitization. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bul. 1941. 784:48

DeBach P. Biological control of insect pests and weeds. 1964. New York: Reinhold Publ. Corp. 844p.

Doutt R. L. An evaluation of some natural enemies of olive scale. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1954. 47(1):39-43.

Doutt R. L. A taxonomic analysis of parasitic Hymenoptera reared from Parlatoria oleae (Colvée). Hilgardia. 1966. 37(9):219-31. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v37n09p219 [CrossRef]

Doutt R. L., DeBach P. Some biological control concepts and questions. Biological control of insect pests and weeds. Chapter 5. 1964. London: Chapman and Hall, Ltd. p. 118-42.

Elton C. S. The ecology of invasions by animals and plants. 1958. London: Methuen and Co., Ltd. 181p.

Flanders S. E. Competition and cooperation among parasitic Hymenoptera related to biological control. Canad. Ent. 1965. 97:409-22. DOI: 10.4039/Ent97409-4 [CrossRef]

Haldane J. B. S. Disease and evolution. In: Symposium sui fattori ecologici e genetici della speciazone negeli animali. Ric. Sci. 1949. 19(supplement):3-11.

Huffaker C. B. Fundamentals of bological control of weeds. Hilgardia. 1957. 27(3):101-57. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v27n03p101 [CrossRef]

Huffaker C. B. The concept of balance in nature. Proc. 10th Int. Congr. Ent. 1958. 2:625-36. Montreal, 1956.

Huffaker C. B. Competition for food by a phytophagous mite: the roles of dispersion and superimposed density-independent mortality. Hilgardia 1966. (In press.) DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v37n14p533 [CrossRef]

Huffaker C. B., Kennett C. E., Finney G. L. Biological control of olive scale, Parlatoria oleae (Colvée), in California by imported Aphytis maculicomis (Masi) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Hilgardia. 1962. 32(13):541-636. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v32n13p541 [CrossRef]

Huffaker C. B., Messenger P. S. The concept and significance of natural control. Biological control of insect pests and weeds. Chapter 4 1964. pp.74-117. London: Chapman and Hall, Ltd.

Kennett C. E., Huffaker C. B., Finney G. L. The role of an autoparasitic aphelinid, Coccophagoides utilis Doutt, in the control of olive scale. Hilgardia. 1966. 37(9):255-82. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v37n09p255 [CrossRef]

Morris R. F. The interpretation of mortality data in studies on population dynamics. Canad. Ent. 1957. 89(11):49-69. DOI: 10.4039/Ent8949-2 [CrossRef]

Morris R. F. Single-factor analysis in population dynamics. Ecology. 1959. 40:580-88. DOI: 10.2307/1929811 [CrossRef]

Neilson M. M., Morris R. F. The regulation of European spruce sawfly numbers in the Maritime Provinces of Canada from 1937 to 1963. Canad. Ent. 1964. 96(5):773-84. DOI: 10.4039/Ent96773-5 [CrossRef]

Nicholson A. J. The balance of animal populations. Jour. Animal Ecol. 1933. 2(supplement):132-78. DOI: 10.2307/954 [CrossRef]

Pemberton C. E., Willard H. F. Interrelations of fruit fly parasites in Hawaii. Jour. Agr. Res. 1918. 12(5):285-95.

Silvestri F. The biological control of insects and weed pests. Jour. South-Eastern Agr. Coll. (Wye, Kent, England). 1932. 30:87-96.

Smith H. S. Multiple parasitism: its relation to the biological control of insect pests. Bul. Ent. Res. 1929. 20(2):141-49. DOI: 10.1017/S0007485300021040 [CrossRef]

Smith H. S. Review of: The biological control of insects, by H. L. Sweetman. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1937. 30:218-20.

Taylor T. H. C. The biological control of an insect in Fiji. 1937. Bungay, Suffolk, England: R. Clay and Sons. 239p.

Turnbull A. L., Chant D. A. The practice and theory of biological control of insects in Canada. Canad. Jour. Zool. 1961. 39:697-753. DOI: 10.1139/z61-071 [CrossRef]

Ullyett G. C. Mortality factors in populations of Plutella maculipennis Curtis (Tineidae: Lep.) and their relation to the problem of control. Union S. Africa Dept. Agr. and Forestry Ent. Mem. 1947. 2:77-202.

Utida S. Effect of host density upon the population growth of interacting two species of parasites. Experimental studies on synparasitism. Second report. Oyo-Kontyu. 1953. 9:102-07.

van den Bosch R., Schlinger E. I., Dietrich E. J., Hall J. C., Putler B. Studies on succession, distribution, and phenology of imported parasites of Therioaphis trifolii (Monell) in southern California. Ecol. 1964. 45(3):602-21. DOI: 10.2307/1936112 [CrossRef]

van den Bosch R., Schlinger E. I., Lagace C. F., Hall J. C. Parasitization of Acyrthosiphon piswm (Harris) by Aphidius smithii Sharma &; Rao, a density dependent process in nature (Homoptera: Aphididae) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae). Ecology (In press.)

Varley G. C. Ecological aspects of population regulation. Trans. 9th Int. Congr. Ent. 1953. 2:210-14. Amsterdam, 1951.

Varley G. C., Gradwell G. R. Oak defoliators in England. Proc. 10th Int. Congr. Ent. 1958. 4:133-36. Montreal, 1956.

Varley G. C., Gradwell G. R. Interpreting winter-moth population 1965. pp.377-78. Proc. 12th Int. Congr. Ent. London, 1964.

Watt K. E. F. Community stability and the strategy of biological control. Canad. Ent. 1965. 97(8):887-95. DOI: 10.4039/Ent97887-8 [CrossRef]

Zwölfer H. The structure of the parasite complexes of some Lepidoptera. Z. angew, Ent. 1963. 51:346-57.

Huffaker C, Kennett C. 1966. Studies of two parasites of olive scale, Parlatoria oleae (Colvée): IV. Biological control of Parlatoria oleae (Colvée) through the compensatory action of two introduced parasites. Hilgardia 37(9):283-335. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v37n09p283
Webmaster Email: wsuckow@ucanr.edu