The mating and oviposition behavior of the navel orangeworm, Paramyelois transitella (Walker)
AuthorsJames A. Goodwin
Harold F. Madsen
Authors AffiliationsJames A. Goodwin was at the time of the studies, was a graduate student in the Department of Entomology and Parasitology, Berkeley; Harold F. Madsen was Associate Professor in Entomology and Associate Entomologist in the Experiment Station, Berkeley, and is now Entomologist in charge, Entomology Laboratory, Canada Department of Agriculture, Summerland, B.C.
Hilgardia 35(18):507-525. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v35n18p507. August 1964.
Laboratory studies on the mating behavior of the navel orangeworm, Paramyelois transitella (Walker) showed that mating is stimulated by a twilight period. Multiple mating is not uncommon, but males tend to mate more readily with virgin females. Oviposition begins on the second day after mating and reaches a peak on the eighth day.
Studies on black light attraction in the greenhouse showed a diminishing percentage of trapped females in relation to males as the distance from the trap was increased. The heavier bodied females are poorer flyers than the males. This may explain the high ratio of males to females captured in black lights in the field.
Black lights in walnut orchards captured numerous navel orangeworm adults and dissection of the females showed that the majority were in the early to mid stage of reproductive maturity. A method of classifying the females into reproductive age groups was developed in the laboratory using the physiological condition of the females as a criterion. Multiple mating in the field increased as the season progressed and coincided with the periods of highest adult activity.
The data from these studies indicate that black lights are a valuable indicator of navel orangeworm field activity. The mating and oviposition behavior studies provide information that is necessary if a program of control by sterile males is contemplated.
Armitage H. M. Twenty-fifth annual report, for period ending December 31, 1944. Div. Plant Industry, Bur. Entomology and Plant Quarantine. Federal port survey. Calif. State Dept. Agr. Bul. 1944. 33(4):253
Atkins E. L. Unpublished report. Navel orangeworm, Myelois venipars Dyar, rearing and life cycle data. 1951. Riverside: Dept. of Entomology, Univ. of Calif.
Cockerell T. D. A. Some insect pests of the Salt River Valley and the remedies for them. Ariz. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 1899. 32:289
Dickson R. C., Barnes M. M., Turzan C. L. Continuous rearing of codling moth. J. Econ. Ent. 1952. 45(1):66-68.
Ebeling W. Subtropical fruit pests. 1959. Univ. of Calif., Div. of Agricultural Sciences. 436p.
Essig E. O. Insects of western North America. 1926. New York: Macmillan Co. 1035p.
Finney G. L., Flanders S. E., Smith H. S. Mass culture of Macrocentrus ancylivorus and its host, the potato tuber moth. Hilgardia. 1947. 17(13):437-83. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v17n13p437 [CrossRef]
Gehring R. D., Madsen Harold F. Some aspects of the mating and ovipositional behavior of the codling moth, Carpocapsa pomonella. J. Econ. Ent. 1962. 56:140-43.
Glick P. A. A survey of Myelois venipars Dyar in Arizona. 1922. Ariz. Comm. Agr. and Hort. p. 78-97. fourteenth annual report
Hixson E. Myelois venipars attacking apples in Oklahoma. J. Econ. Ent. 1934. 27:547
Husseiny M. M. Sterilization by gamma radiation for control of the navel orangeworm, Paramyelois transitella (Walker) 1962. p.89. Ph.D. Thesis, Entomology, Univ. of Calif.
Madsen H. F., Sanborn R. R. Black light traps aid orchard growers. Calif. Agriculture. 1962. 16(2):12-13.
Madsen H. F., Wong T. Y. Tracking the navel orangeworm. Diamond Walnut News. 1962. 44(3):8-14.
Michelbacher A. E., Davis C. S. The navel orangeworm in northern California. J. Econ. Ent. 1961. 54(3):559-62.
Michelbacher A. E., Ortega J. C. A technical study of insects and related pests attacking walnuts. Calif. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 1958. 764:1-87. http://archive.org/details/technicalstudyof0821brow
Michelbacher A. E., Ross N. Navel orangeworm. Calif. Agriculture. 1955. 9(3):4
Nel R. I. The validity of the bait-trap method of spray timing in codling moth control. Union of South Africa. Dept. Agr. and Forestry. Ent. Memoirs. 1940. 2(5):55-76.
Peterson A. Entomological Techniques. 1959. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Edwards Brothers, Inc. 435p.
Sazama R. F. An improved oviposition cage for the codling moth. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1932. 25:140-41.
Summers F. M., Marsh P. M. Unpublished report. 1962. Davis: Univ. of Calif. p. 19-20. Project 1797A
Wade W. H. Biology of navel orangeworm. Proc. Ann. Res. Conf., Calif. Fig Inst., Fresno. 1958. 12:17-18.
Wade W. H. Biology of the Navel orangeworm, Paramyelois transitella (Walker) on almonds and walnuts in northern California. Hilgardia. 1961. 31(6):129-71. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v31n06p129 [CrossRef]
Williams J. L. The relations of the spermatophore to the female reproduction ducts in Lepidoptera. Ent. News. 1941. 52:61-65.