Head smut of sorghum, sudangrass, and corn, caused by Sphacelotheca reiliana (Kühn) Clint.
AuthorPhilip M. Halisky
Author AffiliationsPhilip M. Halisky was Assistant Professor of Plant Pathology and Assistant Plant Pathologist in the Experiment Station, Davis.
Hilgardia 34(8):287-304. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v34n08p287. July 1963.
Head smut, caused by the fungus Sphacelotheca reiliana (Kühn) Clint., is a disease of sorghum, sudangrass, and corn. The symptoms of the disease on these plants are described and compared. Findings of California field surveys since 1957 are reported. Varietal susceptibilities of host plants are indicated where known, with results of recent field tests, notably on the immunity of Lahoma sudangrass. Attempts to infect johnsongrass were negative.
The disease is transmitted in nature by soil-borne spores, which initiate infection during pre- and postemergence growth. The incidence of infection is proportional to the amount of inoculum built up in the soil—as by continuous cropping to susceptible sorghum or by carry-over of the fungus in volunteer plants. The significance of smut mycelium in various plant tissues is considered. High and low soil temperatures are unfavorable for the infection of corn.
Two distinct race groups occur in S. reiliana—one pathogenic on sorghum and one on corn. From cross-inoculation results, it is postulated that the corn race may have evolved from one of the sorghum races.
Al-Sohaily Ibrahim Aziz. Physiologic specialization within Sphacelotheca reiliana (Kühn) Clint, on sorghum and the biology of its chlamydospores in the soil. 1960. 21(10):90 Ph.D. Thesis, South Dakota State College. University Microfilms Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan, Mic 61-552. (Dissertation Abstr.: 2849.)
Al-Sohaily Ibrahim A., Mankin Cleon J. Reaction of corn and sorghum to corn and sudan grass head smuts. Plant Disease Rptr. 1960. 44:113-14.
Bressman E. N., Barss H. P. Experiments with head smut of corn in western Oregon. Phytopathology. 1933. 23:396-403.
Christensen J. J. The relation of soil temperature and soil moisture to the development of head smut of sorghum. Phytopathology. 1926. 16:353-57.
Dana B. F., Zundel George L. A new corn smut in Washington. Phytopathology. 1920. 10:328-30.
Failyer G. H., Willard J. T. Experiments with sorghum, and with sugar beets. Kansas Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1891. 16:135-49. (December, 1890.)
Fischer George William. Manual of the North American smut fungi. 1953. New York: The Ronald Press Company. 343p. (See Pp. 146-47.)
Fischer George W., Hirschhorn Elisa. The Ustilaginales or “smuts” of Washington. Washington Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1945. 459:84 (See pp. 54-55.)
Fischer George William, Stewart Holton Charles. Biology and control of the smut fungi. 1957. New York: The Ronald Press Company. 622p. (See chapter 13.)
Halisky Philip M. Heritable albinism in Sphacelotheca reiliana. Phytopathology. 1961. 51:407-09.
Halisky Philip M. Prevalence and pathogenicity of Sphacelotheca reiliana causing head smut of field corn in California. Phytopathology. 1962. 52:199-202.
Halisky P. M., Petersen L. J. Systemic development and persistence of Sphacelotheca reiliana in sudan grass. Phytopathology. 1962. 52:541-44.
Halisky Philip M., Smeltzer Dale G. Head smut disease of corn, sorghum, and sudangrass established in California. California Agr. 1961. 15(1):10-12.
Halisky P. M., Smeltzer D. G., Houston B. R. Head smut of sudan grass and sorghum in California. Plant Disease Rptr. 1959. 43:1084-90.
Krüger W. Sphacelotheca reiliana on maize. I. Infection and control studies. So. African Jour. Agr. Sci. 1962. 5:43-56. (See table 2, p. 45.)
Leukel R. W. Studies on sorghum head smut. Plant Disease Rptr. 1956. 40:737-38.
López Luis César, Covarrubias Ramon, Niederhauser John S., Núñez Roberto, Laird R. J. El carbón de la espiga del maíz. Agr. Téc. en Mexico, No. 1959. 8:11-15.
Mackie W. W. Head smut in sorghum and maize. Phytopathology. 1920. 10:307-08.
Mankin Cleon J. Studies of the biology of Sphacelotheca reiliana causing head smut of corn 1953. p.65. Ph.D. Thesis, Washington State College
Norton J. B. S. Ustilago reiliana on corn. Bot. Gaz. 1895. 20:463
Potter Alden A. Head smut of sorghum and maize. Jour. Agr. Res. 1914. 2:339-72.
Reed George M., Melchers Leo E. Sorghum smuts and varietal resistance in sorghums. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bul. 1925. 1284:56
Reed George M., Swabey Marjorie, Alma Kolk Laura. Experimental studies on head smut of corn and sorghum. Bul. Torrey Bot. Club. 1927. 54:295-310. DOI: 10.2307/2480677 [CrossRef]
Rockefeller Foundation Program in the Agricultural Sciences. Mexican Agricultural Program. Ann. Rpt. 1960. 1959-1960:pp.13-102. (See Pp. 29, 31, 80-81.)
Reed George M., Swabey Marjorie, Alma Kolk Laura. Mexican Agricultural Program. Ann. Rpt. 1961. 1960-1961:9-101. (See pp. 37, 79-80.)
Smith Francis L. The effect of corn smut on the yield of grain in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 1936. 28:257-65. DOI: 10.2134/agronj1936.00021962002800040001x [CrossRef]
Stewart Robert B., Reyes Lucas. Head smut of sorghum and varietal reaction. Plant Disease Rptr. 1958. 42:1133-40.
Also in this issue:The need for expanded agricultural communication
California conifers thrive in New Zealand
A new approach to thinning olives
Illegal Mexican workers: Why they come
Damsel bugs useful as predators but need help
California sugarbeet growers respond quickly to price
Vetch is an economical source of nitrogen in rice
Biological control of brownbanded cockroaches
Short-rotation eucalyptus as a biomass fuel
Geologic nitrogen in soils may pose hazard
New “glance” technique measures dairy efficiency