Studies on lipids in some Homopterous insects
AuthorFrank E. Strong
Author AffiliationsFrank E. Strong was Assistant Professor Entomology and Assistant Entomologist in the Experiment Station, Davis.
Hilgardia 34(2):43-61. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v34n02p043. March 1963.
There is little information available on the occurrence of lipids in aphids or other sucking insects, and little is known of the role of lipids in aphid nutrition. The purpose of the present investigation was to obtain preliminary information on several phases of these problems. The classes of lipids extracted from one aphid, Macrosiphum barri Essig, were separated by column chromatography. The fatty acids in each of these classes as well as in the crude lipid extracts from 20 other species of aphids and six species of leafhoppers were separated by gas-liquid chromatography. Nearly all of the fatty acids in M. barri were in the form of triglycerides, as in other insects that have been studied by previous investigators. The free fatty acids accounted for only a small percentage of the total quantity of lipids extracted from M. barri.
In general, aphids had a high proportion of the fatty acids with a carbon chain length of 14 or less and a low proportion of fatty acids with 18 carbon atoms. The reverse was found for the leafhoppers analyzed. The fatty acid composition of an aphid appears to be a species characteristic, not appreciably influenced by the host plant. It changed with the stage of development in some species but not in others. Its possible usefulness in aphid taxonomy is uncertain at present.
Fatty acids were found in the honeydew of two species of aphids. Their relative proportions in the honeydew of the green peach aphid and in the juice of its host suggest that linoleic acid may be required in the diet of that aphid.
Carroll K. K. Separation of lipid classes by chromatography on florisil. Jour. Lipid Res. 1961. 2:135-41.
Dadd R. H. The nutritional requirements of locusts. I. Development of synthetic diets and lipid requirements. Jour. Insect Physiol. 1960. 4:319-47. DOI: 10.1016/0022-1910(60)90057-3 [CrossRef]
Esau K., Namba R., Rasa E. A. Studies on penetration of sugar beet leaves by stylets of Myzus persicae. Hilgardia. 1961. 30(17):517-29. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v30n17p517 [CrossRef]
Folch J., Lees M., Sloane-Stanley G. H. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissue. Jour. Biol. Chem. 1957. 226:497-509.
Fraenkel G., Blewett M. Linoleic acid, vitamin E and other fat-soluble substances in the nutrition of certain insects, Ephestia kuehniella, E. elutella, E. cautella and Plodia interpunctella (Lep.). Jour. Expt. Biol. 1946. 22:172-90.
Friend W. G. Nutritional requirements of phytophagous insects. Ann. Rev. Ent. 1958. 3:57-74. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.en.03.010158.000421 [CrossRef]
Gilmour Darcy. The biochemistry of insects. 1961. New York and London: Academic Press. 343p. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-6055.1978.tb01508.x [CrossRef]
Giral Francisco. Fats of insects. V. Sphenarium purpurascens Charpentier. Jour. Biol. Chem. 1946. 162:61-63.
Hilditch Thomas Percy. The chemical constitution of natural fats. 1956. 3rd ed. London: Chapman &; Hall, Ltd. 664p. John Wiley &; Sons, Inc., New York, and DOI: 10.1079/BJN19490048 [CrossRef]
House H. L. Insect nutrition. Ann. Rev. Ent. 1961. 6:13-26. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.bi.31.070162.003253 [CrossRef]
Kennedy J. S., Mittler T. E. A method of obtaining phloem sap via the mouth-parts of aphids. Nature [London]. 1953. 171:528 DOI: 10.1038/171528a0 [CrossRef]
Lamb K. P. Composition of the honeydew of the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) feeding on swedes (Brassica napobrassica DC.). Jour. Insect Physiol. 1959. 3:1-13.
Levinson Z. H., Bergmann E. D. Steroid utilization and fatty acid synthesis by larva of the housefly Musca vicina Macq. Biochem. Jour. 1957. 65:254-66.
Maltais J. B., Auclair J. L. Occurrence of amino acids in the honeydew of the crescent-marked lily aphid, Myzus circumflexus (Buck.). Canad. Jour. Zool. 1952. 30:191-93.
Mittler T. E. Amino-acids in phloem sap and their excretion by aphids. Nature [London]. 1953. 172:207 DOI: 10.1038/172207b0 [CrossRef]
Mittler T. E. Studies on the feeding and nutrition of Tuberolachnus salignus (Gmelin) (Homoptera: Aphididae). II. The nitrogen and sugar composition of ingested phloem sap and excreted honeydew. Jour. Expt. Biol. 1958. 35:74-84.
Mittler T. E., Dadd R. H. Artificial feeding and rearing of the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), on a completely defined synthetic diet. Nature [London]. 1962. 195:404
Peterson W. H., Strong F. M. General biochemistry. 1953. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 469p. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-195310000-00011 [CrossRef]
Richards W. R. A synopsis of the genus Rhopalosiphum in Canada (Homoptera: Aphididae). Canad. Ent. Suppl. 1960. 13:51
Tietz A. Fat synthesis in cell-free preparations of the locust fat-body. Jour. Lipid Res. 1961. 2:182-87.
Timon-David Jean. Contribution à la connaissance des graisses d’insectes: le beurre de pucerons du téré-binthe. Compt. Rend. Acad. des Sci. [Paris]. 1928. 186:104-06.
Van Handel Emile. Separation and chemical assay of lipid classes. Jour. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 1959. 36:294-97. DOI: 10.1007/BF02639999 [CrossRef]
Van Handel Emile, Lum Patrick T. M. Sex as regulator of triglyceride metabolism in the mosquito. Science. 1961. 134:1979-80. DOI: 10.1126/science.134.3494.1979 [CrossRef]
Von Dehn Madeleine. Untersuchungen zur Ernährungsphysiologie der Aphiden. Die Aminosäuren und Zucker im Siebröhrensaft einiger Krautgewächsarten und im Honigtau ihrer Schmarotzer. Ztschr. f. Vergleich. Physiol. 1961. 45:88-108.
Waterhouse D. F. Digestion in insects. Ann. Rev. Ent. 1957. 2:1-18. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.en.02.010157.000245 [CrossRef]
Wren J. J., Mitchell H. K. Extraction methods and an investigation of Drosophila lipids. Jour. Biol. Chem. 1959. 234:2823-28.
Zebe E. C., Mcshan W. H. Incorporation of C14-acetate into long chain fatty acids by the fat body of Prodenia eridania (Lep.). Biochim. et Biophys. Acta. 1959. 31:513-18.
Ziegler Hubert. Untersuchungen über die Leitung und Sekretion der Assimilate. Planta. 1956. 47:447-500.
Zimmermann Martin H. Transport in the phloem. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 1960. 11:167-90. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.pp.11.060160.001123 [CrossRef]
Also in this issue:Does the USDA have a new agricultural research policy?
Rice straw burning: Alternative policy implications
Of men and machines: Technological change and people in agriculture Part II: Changes in hired farm labor and in rural communities
California olives: Situation and outlook
Six new strawberry varieties released
Blue alfalfa aphid: Economic threshold levels in southern California