Biological control of western grape leaf skeletonizer (Harrisina brillians B. and McD.) in California
AuthorCurtis P. Clausen
Author AffiliationsCurtis P. Clausen was Professor of Biological Control and Entomologist in the Agricultural Experiment Station, Emeritus, Riverside.
Hilgardia 31(16):613-638. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v31n16p613. December 1961.
The western grape leaf skeletonizer, native to the southwestern states and northern Mexico, was first found in San Diego County in 1941 and very soon thereafter demonstrated a capacity to cause serious crop losses in the vineyards of that county. A biological control program was started in 1950 as a part of a comprehensive plan to control existing infestations and to prevent their spread to the more important commercial grape-growing areas to the north. Exploration for natural enemies was conducted during 1950 to 1952 and covered the known area of distribution of the pest in the Southwest and Mexico, as well as that of related species in the Atlantic Coast States from New York to Florida. Two insect parasites of the larvae and a virus disease were established in San Diego County as a result of importations from Arizona. These have been highly effective in reducing existing infestations to a low level, with only occasional short-lived outbreaks in semicommercial and back-yard plantings. They have also aided in preventing spread of the pest.
Hall I. M. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner to control the western grape leaf skeletonizer. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1955. 48(6):675-77.
Jones P. R. The grape-leaf skeletonizer (Harrisina americana Guerin-Maneville). U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Ent. Bul. 1909. 68(pt. 8):77-90.
Lange W. H. Jr. The western grape leaf skeletonizer, Harrisina brillians. California. California State Dept. Agr. Bul. 1944. 33(2):98-104.
Langston R. L. Methods for mass rearing of Harrisina brillians (Zygaenidae). Lepid. News. 1954. 8(1-2):11-12.
Langston R. L., Smith O. J. Notes on the zygaenid genus Harrisina Packard, with special reference to Harrisina metallica Stretch. Ent. News. 1953. 64(10):253-55.
Robinson D. W. Description, life history and habits of the western grape leaf skeletonizer, Harrisina brillians B. and McD. California State Dept. Agr. Bul. 1950. 39(3):149-51.
Smith O. J. Grape leaf skeletonizer. California Agric. 1953. 7(5):9 DOI: 10.4039/Ent88507-8 [CrossRef]
Smith O. J. Progress of the program to control western grape leaf skeletonizer with natural enemies. Blue Anchor. 1954. 31(2):6-9. 44
Smith O. J., Diboll A. G., Rosenberger J. H. Laboratory studies of Pelecystoma harrisinae (Ashmead) an adventive braconid parasite of the western grape leaf skeletonizer. Ent. Soc. Amer. Ann. 1955. 48(4):232-37.
Smith O. J., Dunn P. H., Rosenberger J. H. Morphology and biology of Sturmia harrisinae Coquillett (Diptera), a parasite of the western grape leaf skeletonizer. Univ. California Pubs. Ent. 1955. 10(5):321-58.
Smith O. J., Hughes K. M., Dunn P. H., Hall I. M. A granulosis virus disease of the western grape leaf skeletonizer and its transmission. Canad. Ent. 1956. 88(8):507-15. DOI: 10.4039/Ent88507-8 [CrossRef]
Smith O. J., Langston R. L. Continuous laboratory propagation of western grape leaf skeletonizer and parasites by prevention of diapause. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1953. 46(3):477-84.
Steinhaus E. A., Hughes K. M. A granulosis of the western grape leaf skeletonizer. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1952. 45(4):744-45.
Wehrle L. P. Grape insects in Arizona. In Ariz. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 1939. 162:274-92.