Chemical changes in an irrigated soil during 28 years of differential fertilization
AuthorsP. F. Pratt
R. B. Harding
W. W. Jones
H. D. Chapman
Authors AffiliationsP. F. Pratt was Associate Chemist, Department of Soils and Plant Nutrition, University of California, Riverside; R. B. Harding was Associate Chemist, Department of Soils and Plant Nutrition, University of California, Riverside; W. W. Jones was Horticulturist, Department of Horticulture, University of California, Riverside; H. D. Chapman was Chairman and Professor of Soils and Plant Nutrition, Department of Soils and Plant Nutrition, University of California, Riverside.
Hilgardia 28(15):381-420. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v28n15p381. March 1959.
Abstract does not appear. First page follows.
One of the most extensive long-term fertility trials on irrigated soils in a semiarid region is the fertilizer experiment with citrus being conducted at Riverside. The purposes of the experiment were to study the effects of a variety of fertility levels and treatments on yield, growth, and behavior of trees, to measure the cumulative and secondary effects of fertilizers on the trees, and to study the effects of fertilizers, soil amendments, and irrigation on properties of the soil. The purpose of this paper is to report changes in the chemical properties of the soil that have resulted from irrigation and differential fertilization.
Description of the experiment
Washington Navel oranges on sweet orange rootstocks were planted for this experiment in 1917. The land had been previously dry-farmed but had not been fertilized or irrigated. During the first ten years of the growth of the trees fertilizers were not used. During this period winter covercrops of yellow bitter clover or of purple vetch were grown annually, and during the first six years, summer covercrops of cowpeas were grown. The winter cover-crops used since 1927 have been dominantly vetch with barley.
In 1927, differential treatments of the plots were begun. (Parker and Batchelor (1932))6 described the method of distributing the plots to the various treatments. Each plot consisted of a row of eight Washington Navel
Aldrich D. G. Jr., Parker E. R., Chapman H. D. Effects of several nitrogenous fertilizers and soil amendments on the physical and chemical properties of an irrigated soil. Soil Sci. 1945. 59:299-312. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-194504000-00005 [CrossRef]
Allison F. E., Roller E. M. A comparison of leaching and distillation procedures for determining fixed ammonia in soils. Soil Sci. 1955. 80:349-62.
Barnette R. M., DeBusk E. F., Hester J. B., Jones H. W. The mineral analysis of a nineteen-year-old Marsh seedless grapefruit tree. Citrus Indus. 1931. 12:5-6. 34.
Bartholomew W. V. Fertilization of crop residues. Does it pay? Agr. Chem. 1955. 10:38-40. 97.
Broadbent F. E. The soil organic fraction. Advances in Agron. 1953. 5:153-83. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60229-1 [CrossRef]
Burd J. E. Chemistry of phosphate ion in soil systems. Soil Sci. 1948. 65:227-47. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-194803000-00002 [CrossRef]
Chapman H. D. The phosphate of southern California soils in relation to citrus fertilization. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1934. 571: https://archive.org/details/phosphateofsouth571chap
Chenery E. M. Thioglycolic acid as an inhibitor for iron in the colorimetric determination of aluminum by means of “aluminon”. Analyst. 1948. 74:501 DOI: 10.1039/an9487300501 [CrossRef]
Dean L. A. An attempted fractionation of soil phosphorus. Jour. Agr. Sci. 1938. 28:234-46. DOI: 10.1017/S0021859600050644 [CrossRef]
Dickman S. R., Bray R. H. Colorimetric determination of phosphate. Indus. and Engin. Chem. Analyt. Ed. 1940. 12:665-68. DOI: 10.1021/ac50151a013 [CrossRef]
Eaton F. M. Significance of carbonates in irrigation water. Soil Sci. 1950. 69:123-33. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-195002000-00004 [CrossRef]
Harding R. B., Pratt P. F., Jones W. W. Changes in salinity, nitrogen, and soil reaction in a differentially fertilized irrigated soil. Soil Sci. 1958. 85:177-84. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-195804000-00001 [CrossRef]
Kardos L. T. Soil fixation of plant nutrients. Amer. Chem. Soc. Monograph. 1955. 126:177-99.
McColloch R. C., Bingham F. T., Aldrich D. G. Relation of soil potassium and magnesium to magnesium nutrition of citrus. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 1957. 21:85-88.
Mehlich A. Determination of cation- and anion-exchange properties of soils. Soil Sci. 1948. 66:424-445. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-194812000-00004 [CrossRef]
Mehta N. C., Legg J. O., Goring C. A. I., Black C. A. Determination of organic phosphorus in soils: I. Extraction method. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 1954. 18:443-49. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj1954.03615995001800040023x [CrossRef]
Olsen S. R., Cole C. V., Watanabe Frank, Dean L. A. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. U. S. Dept. Agr. Cir. 1954. 939:
Parker E. R., Jenny H. Water infiltration and related soil properties as affected by cultivation and organic fertilization. Soil Sci. 1945. 60:353-76. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-194511000-00002 [CrossRef]
Parker E. R., Batchelor L. D. Variations in the yields of fruit trees in relation to the planning of future experiments. Hilgardia. 1932. 7:81-161.
Parker E. R., Batchelor L. D. Effect of fertilizers on orange yields. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1942. 673: https://archive.org/details/effectoffertiliz673park
Parker E. R., Jones W. W. Effect of fertilizers on yields, size and quality of oranges fruits. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1951. 722:
Pratt P. F. Effect of fertilizers and organic materials on the cation-exchange capacity of an irrigated soil. Soil Sci. 1957. 83:85-89.
Pratt P. F., Goulben Benoist. Potassium fixation in soil of a long-term fertility trial with citrus. Soil Sci. 1957. 84: DOI: 10.1097/00010694-195709000-00006 [CrossRef]
Pratt P. F., Goulben Benoist, Harding R. B. Changes in organic carbon and nitrogen in an irrigated soil during 28 years of differential fertilization. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 1957. 21:215-19.
Pratt P. F., Harding R. B. Effect of fertilizers on loss of magnesium from soil. Agron. Jour. 1957. 49:419-21.
Pratt P. F., Holowaychuk N., Morse H. H. Soluble phosphorus in soils of Ohio. Ohio Agr. Exp. Sta. Res. Cir. 1955. 27:
Pratt P. F., Jones W. W., Chapman H. D. Changes in prosphorus in an irrigated soil during 28 years of differential fertilization. Soil Sci. 1956. 82:295-306. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-195610000-00005 [CrossRef]
Reitemeier R. F. Effect of moisture content on the dissolved and exchangeable ions of the soil of arid regions. Soil Sci. 1946. 61:195-214. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-194603000-00001 [CrossRef]
Reitemeier R. F. Soil potassium. Advances in Agron. 1951. 8:113-64. DOI: 10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60368-5 [CrossRef]
Shelton W. R., Harper H. J. A rapid method for the determination of total phosphorus in soils and plants. Iowa State Coll. Jour. Sci. 1940. 15:403-13.
Spencer W. F. Distribution and availability of phosphates added to a Lakeland fine sand. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 1957. 21:141-44.
Stelley M., Pierre W. H. Forms of inorganic phosphorus in the C horizons of some Iowa soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 1943. 7:139-47. (1942)
Stephenson R. E., Chapman H. D. Phosphate penetration in field soils. Amer. Soc. Agron. Jour. 1931. 23:759-70.
U. S. Salinity Laboratory Staff. Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. U. S. Dept. Agr. Handbook No. 60. 1954. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office.
Volk G. W. The nature of potash fixation in soils. Soil Sci. 1938. 45:263-76.
Volk N. J. The fixation of potash in difficultly available form in soils. Soil Sci. 1934. 37:267-87. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-193404000-00003 [CrossRef]
Walkley A., Black I. A. An examination of the Degtjarell method of determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci. 1934. 37:29-38.
York E. T. Jr., Bradfield Richard, Peech Michael. Calcium-potassium interactions in soils and plants: I. Lime-induced potassium fixation in Mardin silt loam. Soil Sci. 1953. 76:379-87. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-195311000-00009 [CrossRef]