Relationships among pruning time response, symptoms attributed to grape bud mite, and temporary early season boron deficiency in grapes
AuthorMartin M. Barnes
Author AffiliationsMartin Barnes was Associate Entomologist in the Experiment Station, Riverside.
Hilgardia 28(7):193-226. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v28n07p193. December 1958.
In studies over a five-year period, the development of abnormal growth formerly included under “grape bud mite injury,” was found to be correlated with the effects of pruning time upon time of leafing of spurpruned vines. Pruning times (e.g., early January) that resulted in early leafing were followed by abnormal growth in early season and resulted in a 39 per cent reduction in yield over a five-year period. The effect of time of pruning upon abnormal growth occurs in the absence of bud mites, a bud-inhabiting strain of Eriophyes vitis (Pgst.). Pruning times (e.g., late March) that resulted in late leafing were followed by virtually normal growth and normal yields. Such pruning-time responses have been observed in Mataro, Muscat of Alexandria, and Malaga grape vineyards subject to abnormal growth.
On Mataro vines, the period in winter in southern California during which buds responded to a nearby pruning wound by leafing very early and developing severe abnormal growth usually began about mid-December and extended through mid-January and, in some years, through the first part of February.
Evidence is presented which indicates that this abnormal growth is caused by a temporary early-season deficiency of boron. Soil applications of borax were followed by alleviation of symptoms, increased yield, and elevation of boron level in leaves above the deficiency range.
It is not inferred that these results show that grape bud mites can cause no injury. It is not known whether such pruning-time responses are in all cases related to temporary early-season boron deficiency, but this appears to be an excellent working hypothesis. Since pruning time responses have been recorded in northern California vineyards subject to “bud mite injury,” this suggests that this abnormal growth be re-investigated in the light of the possibility of temporary early-season boron deficiency as a causal factor.
Barnes MM, McCornack AA. Grape bud mite injury. California Agr. 1951. 5(1):5 http://californiaagriculture.ucanr.edu/landingpage.cfm?article=ca.v005n01p5
Barnes MM, Hemstreet CL, Turzan CL. Pruning time studies on grapes. California Agr. 1952. 6(2):6-14. http://californiaagriculture.ucanr.edu/landingpage.cfm?article=ca.v006n02p6
Barnes MM, Jones WW. Boron deficiency in grapes. California Agr. 1956. 10(8):12 http://californiaagriculture.ucanr.edu/landingpage.cfm?article=ca.v010n08p12
Batjer LD, Eogers BL, Thompson AH. “Blossom blast” of pears; an incipient boron deficiency. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc. 1953. 62:119-122.
Chandler WH. Deciduous Orchards. 1942. Philadelphia: Lea &; Febiger. p. 438-589.
Chandler WH, Brown DS. Deciduous orchards in California winters. California Agr. Ext. Serv. Circ. 1951. 179:1-38. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.53410 [CrossRef]
Dias HF. Informacao sobre a “maromba” do Douro. Federacao dos Vinicultores da Regiao do Douro. Bol. da Casa do Douro, No. 85. 1953. Abstracted in: Rev. Appl. Myc. 33: 336-37. 1954
Duncan DB. Significance tests for differences between ranked treatments in an analysis of variance 1953. Va. Poly. Inst., Dept. Statis., Tech. Rpt. No. 3
Du Plessis SJ. Virus diseases and some symptomologically related abnormalities of the vine. Stellenbosch Univ. Ann. 1950. 26(sec. A 13):1-33.
Gärtel Wilhelm. Symptoms of boron deficiency in vine. Rhein. Weinz. 1953. 3:64 Abstracted in: Hort. Abs. 24: (abs. no. 2404). 1954
Gärtel Wilhelm. Les effets de la carence en bore sur la vigne. Progrés Agr. et Viticole. 1954. 142:273-279.
Hilgard EW. The muscat in the southern mesa. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Bui. 1884. 17:1
Jardine FAL. The use of borax on Waltham Cross grapes in the Stanhope district. Queensland Agr. Jour. 1946. 62:74-78.
Kido Hiroshi, Stafford EM. The biology of the grape bud mite Eriophyes vitis (Pgst.). Hilgardia. 1955. 24:119-142. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v24n06p119 [CrossRef]
Maier W. Boron deficiency symptoms in vine seedlings grown in water cultures. Gartenbauwissenschaft. 1936. 11:1-16. Abstracted in: Herb. Abs. 7: 121 (abs. no. 322). 1937
Scott LE. An instance of boron deficiency in the grape under field conditions. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc. 1941. 38:375-378.
Scott LE. Boron nutrition of the grape. Soil Sci. 1944. 57:55-65. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-194401000-00006 [CrossRef]
Scott LE, Schrader AL. Effect of alternating conditions of boron nutrition upon growth and boron content of grapevines in sand culture. Plant Physiol. 1947. 22:526-537. DOI: 10.1104/pp.22.4.526 [CrossRef]
Singh LB, Dikshit NN. Studies in introducing earliness in maturity of grapes (Vitis vinifera Linn.). I. Effect of early pruning on the growth of vines and maturity of fruits. Indian Jour. Hort. 1952. 9(3):20-25. Abstracted in: Herb. Abs. 23: 240 (abs. no. 1599). 1953
Sisson RL. The grape bud mite in Sonoma County. California Agr. Ext. Serv. 1950. Sonoma County: 5p. pp. (Processed.)
Sisson RL. The effect of differentially timed pruning on grape vines in Sonoma County and further observations on the grape bud mite. California Agr. Ext. Serv. 1952. Sonoma County: 6p. (Processed.)
Sisson RL. Vineyard pruning time effects. California Agr. Ext. Serv. 1953. Sonoma County: 8p. (Processed.)
Smith LM, Stafford EM. The bud mite and the erineum mite of grapes. Hilgardia. 1948. 18:317-334. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v18n07p317 [CrossRef]
Smith LM, Stafford EM. Grape bud mite problem. California Agr. 1950. 4(9):3-4. http://californiaagriculture.ucanr.edu/landingpage.cfm?article=ca.v004n09p3
Smith LM, Stafford EM. Grape insects in California. California Agr. Ext. Serv. Circ. 1955. 445:1-62.
Stafford EM, Kido Hiroshi. Grape bud mite studies. California Agr. 1952. 6(4):4 http://californiaagriculture.ucanr.edu/landingpage.cfm?article=ca.v006n04p4
Weinland HA. Erinose mite, a major pest. The Grape Grower. 1947. 1(5):17
Wilhelm AF. Bormangel bei der Weinrebe Vitis vinifera L. Phytopath. Ztschr. 1952. 19:129-159. Cited in: Christ, E. G., and Albert Ulrich, “Grape Nutrition,” in Mineral Nutrition of Fruit Crops, Hort. Pubs., Rutgers Univ., 1954
Winkler AJ. Pruning vinifera grapevines. California Agr. Ext. Serv. Circ. 1934. 89:1-68.