Major economic forces affecting agriculture with particular reference to California
AuthorS. V. Ciriacy-Wantrup
Author AffiliationsS. V. Ciriacy-Wantrup was Professor of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Economist in the Experiment Station and on the Giannini Foundation.
Hilgardia 18(1):1-76. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v18n01p001. December 1947.
Abstract does not appear. First page follows.
It is commonly emphasized that the economic position of California agriculture is subject to special factors that do not operate, or operate to a much smaller extent, in other parts of the nation. Special conditions in climate, soils, topography, economic location, and history, and, accordingly, in types of products, yields, prices, and organization, put farming in California in a class by itself if compared with that in other states. Still, for California agriculture as a whole, as well as for its individual branches, changes in economic position are influenced greatly by major economic forces affecting farmers regardless of type of product and location. This study is concerned with such forces.
In order to explain the nature and significance of major economic forces, it appears best to analyze their operation in the past. On such a basis, obviously, no hard-and-fast forecasts about the future can be made. One may attempt, however, to help the reader recognize the direction and strength of present tendencies and appraise public economic policies designed to cope with them.
For this attempt it is useful to start the analysis before the first world war. Statistical data for individual states are rather unsatisfactory in volume and reliability before 1910. On the other hand, economic tendencies visible after World War II have important characteristics in common with those that were created through World War I. Although it cannot be expected that history will repeat itself, it is highly instructive to observe how the economic forces in which we are interested have operated during and after a major war.
In the historical analysis, conditions in California agriculture will be compared, as far as available data permit, with conditions in the United States excluding California.
Ciriacy-Wantrup S. V. Agrarkrisen und Stockungspannen zur Frage der langen “Welle” in der Wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung. [Germany] Reichs Min. f. Ernähr. u. Landw. Ber. über Landw. Sonderheft (N.F.). 1936. 122: Berlin: Paul Parey. p. 1-445.
Ciriacy-Wantrup S. V., Hardy C. O. Agricultural depressions and periods of industrial stagnation. 1938a. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution. 296p. (Mimeo.)
Ciriacy-Wantrup S. V. Problems of the long cycle in economic development since the Eighteenth Century. 1938b. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California. 10p. Abstracted in: Cowles Comm. for Research in Econ. Rept. of the 4th Ann. Res. Conf. on Econ. and Statis., July 5 to 29, Colorado Springs, Colo. p. 71-74. (Dittoed.)
Ciriacy-Wantrup S. V. Notes on the significance of trade, legal, and price barriers in relation to “social progress.”. 1939. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California. 14p. (Mimeo.)
Ciriacy-Wantrup S. V. Relation of war economics to agriculture with particular reference to the effects of income and price inflation and deflation. Amer. Econ. Rev. 1940. 30(1, part 2, sup.):366-82.
Ciriacy-Wantrup S. V. Taxation and the conservation of resources. Quar. Jour. Econ. 1944. 58:157-95. DOI: 10.2307/1883316 [CrossRef]
Ciriacy-Wantrup S. V. Resource conservation and economic stability. Quar. Jour. Econ. 1946. 60:412-52.
Coombs Whitney. Taxation of farm property. U. S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bul. 1930. 172:1-75.
Hardy C. O. Schumpeter on capitalism, socialism, and democracy. Jour. Polit. Econ. 1945. 53:348-56. DOI: 10.1086/256285 [CrossRef]
Keynes John Maynard. The general theory of employment interest and money. 1936. New York, N.Y.: Harcourt Brace and Company. 403p. DOI: 10.1017/UPO9781139524278 [CrossRef]
Regan M. M., Johnson A. R., Clarenbach Fred A. The farm real estate situation, 1944-45. U. S. Dept. Agr. Cir. 1945. 743:1-47.
Schumpeter J. A. Capitalism, socialism, and democracy. 1942. New York, N.Y.: Harper and Brothers. 381p. DOI: 10.4324/9780203202050 [CrossRef]
Stonecipher Harvey V., Dunn Dora. Farm real estate market activity, seven western states, 1945. 1946. Berkeley, Calif. (Mimeo.): U. S. Bur. Agr. Econ. 15p.
U. S. Bureau of Agricultural Economics. National survey of liquid asset holdings, spending, and saving. Part One: Major findings. 1945-46. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Bur. Agr. Econ. 35p. Part Two: Relation of saving and holdings to income. 45
U. S. Bureau of Home Economics. Family food consumption and dietary levels, five regions. Consumer purchases study: farm series. 1941a. 405:U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. p. 1-393.
U. S. Bureau of Home Economics. Family food consumption and dietary levels, five regions. Consumer purchases study: urban and village series. 1941b. 452:U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. p. 1-268.
U. S. Bureau of Home Economics. Family spending and saving. U. S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. 1942. 489:1-126.
U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Family expenditures in selected cities, 1935-36. U. S. Bur. Labor Statis. Bul. 1941. 648:1-8. (Study of consumer purchases: urban technical series.)
U. S. Department of Commerce. The business situation. Survey of Current Business. 1946. 26(12):6
U. S. National Resources Committee. Consumer expenditures in the United States. 1939. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Natl. Resources Comm. 195p.