Some problems in the use of artificial light in crop protection
AuthorWilliam B. Herms
Author AffiliationsWilliam B. Herms was Professor of Parasitology, Emeritus.
Hilgardia 17(10):359-375. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v17n10p359. April 1947.
Abstract does not appear. First page follows.
When the author first began to investigate the light reactions of blowfly larvae on the sandy beaches of Lake Erie, during the summers of 1903-1906, little did he suspect that he would be investigating the light reactions of the codling moth, Carpocapsa pomonella (Linn.), in apple orchards in California twenty-five years later. As the laboratory and field notes of the early work in Ohio are examined, two significant points that have been stressed throughout the years may be noted: (1) importance of knowing field habits, as then stated, “… behavior … under natural conditions … should be considered first”; this point was again stressed in 1909 (Herms, 1909); and (2) the importance of wave length and intensity. These early studies convinced the author of the powerful influence of light on the behavior of insects (and of other arthropods) (Herms, 1907a), (b), and suggested the possibility of devising ways and means for the use of artificial light in the control of insects for man’s benefit in crop protection (Herms and Ellsworth, 1934). In spite of many interruptions and some opposition by old-line entomologists, as well as by other interests, some progress of economic importance has been made. As an aid to future work, examination of some of the problems encountered during the course of these investigations seems appropriate.
Much of the earlier work was concerned with laboratory studies (largely unpublished) of the color reactions of various species of insects of economic importance, such as the codling moth. These investigations indicated that insects have color preferences, and that such preferences differ markedly for the various species under consideration. Furthermore, the investigations seem to justify the belief that through the use of appropriate monochromats of sufficient light intensity, certain species of harmful insects could be lured to destruction with the exclusion of harmless and beneficial forms. Experimental evidence points to the fact that certain species of insects—particularly crepuscular forms—become active on exposure to low intensities of light and, by an increase in light intensity, might be deterred from performing their egg-laying function; hence the field tests made on the codling moth.
Bertholf L. M. Reactions of the honeybee to light. Jour. Agr. Res. 1931a. 42:379-419.
Bertholf L. M. The distribution of stimulative efficiency in the ultraviolet spectrum for the honeybee. Jour. Agr. Res. 1931b. 43:703-13.
Borden A. D. Some field observations on codling moth behavior. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1931. 24:1137-45.
Dalziel C. F. Danger of electric shock. Elect. West. 1938. 80(4):30-31.
Ellsworth J. K. Light electrocution control of insects. Blue Anchor. 1938. 15(7):14-16. 25, 26.
Gross A. O. The reactions of arthropods to monochromatic lights of equal intensities. Jour. Exp. Zoöl. 1913. 14(4):467-514. DOI: 10.1002/jez.1400140402 [CrossRef]
Herms W. B. An ecological and experimental study of Sarcophagidae with reference to lake beach debris. Jour. Exp. Zoöl. 1907a. 4(1):45-83.
Herms W. B. Notes on a Sandusky Bay shrimp, Palaemonetes exilipes Stimpson. Ohio Nat. 1907b. 7(4):73-79.
Herms W. B. Recent work in insect behavior and its economic significance. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1909. 2(3):223-30.
Herms W. B. A field test of the effect of artificial light on the behavior of the codling moth Carpocapsa pomonella Linn. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1929. 22(1):78-88.
Herms W. B. Deterrent effect of artificial light on the codling moth. Hilgardia. 1932. 7(7):263-80.
Herms W. B. The Clear Lake gnat. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1937. 607:1-22. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.59157 [CrossRef]
Herms W. B., Burgess R. W. Combined light and suction fan trap for insects. Elect. West. 1928. 60(14):204-06.
Herms W. B., Ellsworth J. K. Field tests of the efficacy of colored light in trapping insect pests. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1934. 27(5):1056-67.
Herms W. B., Ellsworth J. K. The use of colored light in electrocuting traps for the control of the grape leafhopper. Agr. Engin. 1935. 16(5):183-86.
Hewitt W. B., Frazier N. W., Jacob H. E., Freitag J. H. Pierce’s disease of grapevines. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Cir. 1942. 353:1-32.
Lange W. H. Jr. The artichoke plume moth and other pests injurious to the globe artichoke. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1941. 653:1-71.
Lawson Paul B. Another season’s trap-lighting of leafhoppers. Kansas Ent. Soc. Jour. 1930. 3(2):35-43.
Patch Edith M. Without benefit of insects. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. Bul. 1938. 38(1):1-9.
Tavernetti J. R., Ellsworth J. K. Energy requirements and safety features of electric insect traps. Agr. Engin. 1938. 19(11):485 486, 490.
Turner W. B. Female Lepidoptera at light traps. Jour. Agr. Res. 1918. 14(3):135-49.
Williams C. B. An analysis of four years’ captures of insects in a light trap. Part II. The effect of weather conditions on insect activity; and the estimation and forecasting of change in the insect population. Roy. Ent. Soc. London Trans. 1940. 90(8):227-306.
Also in this issue:Mission veldtgrass: A new high-seed-yielding, non-shattering perennial veldtgrass named for and adapted to California's mission trail rangelands and beaches.
Wind erosion control with chemical sprays
Preplant fertilizers: On winter planted strawberries
Glass fiber filters for tile drains
Sorghum forages: For silage in California
Weather influences on use of acaricides for citrus mite control
Tanoak: Drying program and shrinkage characteristics
Metabolic alterations in diseased plants