Certain symptoms resembling those of curly top or aster yellows, induced by saliva of Xerophloea vanduzeei
AuthorsHenry H. P. Severin
F. Douglas Horn
Norman W. Frazier
Authors AffiliationsHenry H. P. Severin was Entomologist in the Experiment Station; Norman W. Frazier was Junior Entomologist in the Experiment Station.
Hilgardia 16(7):335-360. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v16n07p335. February 1945.
Abstract does not appear. First page follows.
In 1938, during an investigation of leafhopper species to determine which were vectors of aster-yellows virus, Xerophloea vanduzeei Law., was tested. This insect was at first thought to be a vector, for after feeding on infected asters it produced, in healthy plants, some symptoms closely resembling those of aster yellows. Further preliminary tests, however, showed the same results even when the insect had been reared entirely on healthy asters and was presumably noninfective for yellows. When the insect was tested on sugar beets, it caused some symptoms resembling those of curly top, even though it had not previously been allowed to feed on curly-top-infected plants.
The disease produced by the feeding of this insect is not likely to be of commercial importance on either beets or asters. In twenty-eight years of work on curly top, the senior author has never taken Xerophloea vanduzeei on beets in the field, nor observed it on asters under natural conditions. It has been collected, however, in alfalfa fields. Nevertheless, the fact that diseases so closely simulating curly top and aster yellows could be produced when apparently these viruses are not involved suggests that definite identification of these two virus diseases is not possible from symptoms alone. Furthermore, similar situations may exist with other sucking insects or other syndromes. A brief review of the literature follows.
Review of Literature
Ball (1918)4 discovered one of the most striking examples of a plant disease, namely hopperburn of potato induced by the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris). He (Ball, 1919) concluded that the explanation of the disease was to be found in “some specific transmitted by the insect,” and that the production of the disease was specific to the potato leafhopper. Eyer (1922a), (1922b) and Fenton and Hartzell (1923) attribute the causative agent of hopperburn to some specific substance in the insect’s body.
Ball (1919) attributes hopperburn to an “infection or an injection.” Whether it will prove to be a specific disease like curly top is yet to be worked out. According to Granovsky (19:’28) the symptoms indicate the presence of some infective principle or virulent toxin. Johnson (1934) states that the pathological symptoms caused by the potato leafhopper on forage legumes were not due to the transmission of a virus by this insect.
Ball E. D. Leaf burn of the potato and its relation to the potato leafhopper. Science. 1918. 48:194 DOI: 10.1126/science.48.1234.194 [CrossRef]
Ball E. D. The potato leafhopper and its relation to hopper burn. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1919. 12:149-55.
Binkley A. M. Transmission studies with the new psyllid-yellows disease of solanaceous plants. Science. 1929. 70:615 DOI: 10.1126/science.70.1825.615 [CrossRef]
Carter W. The pineapple mealy bug, Pseudococcus brevipes, and wilt of pineapples. Phytopathology. 1932. 23(3):207-42.
Carter W. The spotting of pineapple leaves caused by Pseudococcus brevipes, the pineapple mealy bug. Phytopathology. 1932. 23(3):243-59.
Carter W. The symbionte of Pseudococcus brevipes in relation to a phytotoxic secretion of the insect. Phytopathology. 1936. 26(2):170-83.
Carter W. Injuries to plants caused by insect toxins. Bot. Rev. 1939. 5(5):273-326. DOI: 10.1007/BF02878504 [CrossRef]
Eyer J. R. Preliminary note on the etiology of potato tip burn. Science, n. s. 1922a. 55:180-81. DOI: 10.1126/science.55.1416.180-a [CrossRef]
Eyer J. R. Notes on the etiology and specificity of potato tip burn produced by Empoasca mali Baron. Phytopathology. 1922b. 12:181-84.
Fenton F. A. Progress report of the season’s work on the production of potato tip burn. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1921. 14:71-83.
Fenton F. A., Hartzell Albert. Bionomics and control of the potato leafhopper, Empoasca mali Le Baron. Iowa Agr. Exp. Sta. Res. Bul. 1923. 78:379-440.
Germar E. F. Drei neue Gattungen der Cicadinen. Zeitschrift für die Entomologie. 1839. 1(1):187-92. (See especially p. 190.) Friedrich Fleischer, Leipzig, Germany.
Granovsky A. A. Alfalfa “yellow top” and leafhoppers. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1928. 21:261-66.
Granovsky A. A. Differentiation of symptoms and effects of leafhopper feeding on histology of alfalfa leaves. Phytopathology. 1930. 20:121
Ito K. Studies on the life history of the pineapple mealybug Pseudococcus brevipes (Ckll.). Jour. Econ. Ent. 1938. 31:291-98.
Johnson H. W. Nature of injury to forage legumes by the potato leafhopper. Jour. Agr. Res. 1934. 49:379-406.
Lawson P. B. The genus Xerophloea in North America (Homoptera, Cicadellidae). Pan-Pacific Ent. 1931. 7(4):159-69.
Medler T. J. The nature of injury to alfalfa caused by Empoasca fabae (Harris). Ent. Soc. Amer. Ann. 1941. 34(2):439-50.
Monteith J. Jr., Hollowell E. A. Pathological symptoms in legumes caused by the potato leafhopper. Jour. Agr. Res. 1929. 38:649-77.
Poos F. W. Leafhopper injury to legumes. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1929. 22:143-53.
Poos F. W., Wheeler N. H. On the hereditary ability of certain insects to transmit diseases and to cause disease-like injuries to plants. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1934. 27(1):58-69.
Poos F. W., Wheeler N. H. Studies of host plants of the leaf hoppers of the genus Empoasca. U. S. Dept. Agr. Res. Bul. 1943. 850:1-51.
Rawlins T. E., Tompkins C. M. Studies on the effect of carborundum as an abrasive in plant virus inoculations. Phytopathology. 1936. 26:578-87.
Richards B. L., Blood H. L. Psyllid yellows of potato. Jour. Agr. Res. 1933. 46(3):189-216.
Robinson L. Ray, Richards B. L. Anasa wilt of cucurbits. Phytopathology. 1931. 21:114
Severin H. H. P. Curly leaf transmission experiments. Phytopathology. 1924. 14:103-7. Summary 14: 123.
Severin H. H. P. Curly-top symptoms on the sugar beet. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1929a. 465:1-35. http://archive.org/details/curlytopsymptoms465seve
Severin H. H. P. Yellows disease of celery, lettuce, and other host plants transmitted by Cicadula sexnotata (Fall.). Hilgardia. 1929b. 3(18):543-82. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v03n18p543 [CrossRef]
Severin H. H. P. Life-history of beet leafhopper, Eutettix tenellus (Baker). California. Univ. California Pubs., Ent. 1930. 5:37-88.
Severin H. H. P. Potato naturally infected with California aster yellows. Phytopathology. 1940. 30(12):1049-51.
Severin H. H. P. Infection of perennial delphiniums by California-aster-yellows virus. Hilgardia. 1942. 14(8):411-30. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v14n08p411 [CrossRef]
Severin H. H. P., Freitag J. H. Some properties of the curly-top virus. Hilgardia. 1933. 8(1):1-48. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v08n01p001 [CrossRef]
Shapovalov M. Tuber transmission of psyllid yellows in California. Abs. in Phytopathology. 1929. 19:1140
Smith F. F. The nature of the sheath material in the feeding punctures produced by the potato leafhopper and the three-cornered alfalfa hopper. Jour. Agr. Res. 1933. 47:475-85.
Smith F. F., Poos F. W. The feeding habits of some leafhoppers of the genus Empoasca. Jour. Agr. Res. 1931. 43(3):267-85.
Stahl C. F., Carsner E. Obtaining beet leafhoppers nonvirulent as to curly-top. Jour. Agr. Res. 1918. 14:393-94.
Teno S. C. A preliminary report on the studies of certain diseases of cotton. Sci. Soc. China, Biol. Lab. Contrib., Bot. Ser. 1931. 6(9):117-26.
Wang S. C., Yuan H. Studies of crytosis in cotton. Natl. Southeastern Univ. Rept. 1924. 1923-24:1-28. Cotton Res. Lab. (In Chinese; original not seen, reviewed by Teng, 1931.)
Williams C. B. Froghopper blight of sugar cane in Trinidad. Trinidad and Tobago Dept. Agr. Mem. 1921. 1:1-170.
Withycombe C. L. Studies on the aetiology of sugar cane froghopper blight in Trinidad. I. Introduction and general survey. Ann. Appl. Biol. 1926. 13:64-108. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.1926.tb04253.x [CrossRef]
Woods A. F. Stigmonose: a disease of carnations and other pinks. U. S. Dept. Agr. Div. Veg. Physiol. and Path. Bul. 1900. 19:1-30.
Also in this issue:Climatic zones for turfgrass in California
Meat-type lambs: —Goal of proposed sheep improvement association
Severe copper deficiency: Identified in southern California grapefruit
Imperial Valley Field Station Division of Agricultural Sciences University of California El Centro California
EPTC: Pre-emergence herbicide aids establishment of clovers in dryland pastures
Pipe size: And milking machine airflow
Grape container Testing: In simulated transit laboratory shows severe vibration injury possible in loose-packed fruit
Effect of downy mildew on productivity of sugar beets, and selection for resistance