Morphological development of the fruit of the olive
AuthorJ. R. King
Author AffiliationsJ. R. King was Histologist, Division of Pomology, University of California, and Agent, Bureau of Plant Industry, United States Department of Agriculture.
Hilgardia 11(8):435-458. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v11n08p435. June 1938.
Abstract does not appear. First page follows.
Investigations of the olive (Olea europaea L.) have been confined, for the most part, to growth habit, pollination, propagation, physiological requirements, and other horticultural aspects; few studies have been concerned with its morphology. Certain structural features of the flower and fruit have been briefly mentioned in various general sources. (Ruby (1917)) has surveyed varieties of Olea europaea, making physiological and limited morphological observations on both the mature flower and the fruit. (Pirotta (1919)) and (Petri (1920)) studied floral characteristics in relation to field conditions, whereas (Weber (1928)) made extensive comparative morphological investigations on flower types of the Oleaceae. More recently (Andersson (1931)), in his embryological studies of representative forms of the Oleaceae, has traced the development of the macrogametophyte and the early stages following fertilization in Olea, wherein he studied O. chrysophylla and O. europaea.
The investigations here reported are confined to Olea europaea, horticultural variety Mission, and are fourfold in extent, including (1) the development of the flower; (2) the general vascular relations in the flower; (3) the development of the macrogametophyte, in view of Andersson’s work; and (4) the general morphological changes involved in the development of the fruit.
Material was collected every three days from the first appearance of the inflorescence until two days before blooming, then every day for the following two weeks. The time between collections thereafter was gradually increased until maturity of the fruit.
Although several fixatives were tested, a modified Navaschin’s fluid and formalin-acetic-alcohol gave the most satisfactory results with flower buds, while the latter fixative alone was used for young fruits.
Andersson A. Studien über die Embryologie der Familien Celastraceae, Oleaceae, und Apocynaceae. Lunds Univ. Arsskr. N. F. Avd. 2. 1931. 27(7):1-112.
Bushnell Elizabeth P. Development of the macrogametophyte in certain Labiatae. Bot. Gaz. 1936. 98(1):190-97. DOI: 10.1086/334627 [CrossRef]
Coulter J. M., Chamberlain C. J. Morphology of angiosperms. (Morphology of spermatophytes, part II. 348 p.). 1909. New York, N. Y.: D. Appleton and Company.
Crist J. W., Batjer L. P. The stone cells of pear fruits, especially the Kieffer pear. Michigan Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. 1931. 113:3-55.
Drinkard A. W. Jr. Fruit bud formation and development. Virginia Agr. Exp. Sta. Rept. 1909. 1909-1910:159-205.
Goff E. S. The origin and early development of the flowers in the cherry, plum, apple, and pear. Wisconsin Agr. Exp. Sta. Ann. Rept. 1899. 16:289-303.
Jackson G. The morphology of the flowers of Rosa and certain closely related genera. Amer. Jour. Bot. 1934. 21(8):453-66.
James W. O., Clapham A. R. The biology of flowers. 1935. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 115p.
Kraus E. J. The pollination of the pomaceous fruits. I. Gross morphology of the apple. Oregon Agr. Exp. Sta. Res. Bul. 1913. 1(1):2-12.
Moore J. A. Staining with safranin and fast green FCF. Stain Technol. 1936. 11(2):69-70.
Newby W. W., Plummer P. Technique for preparing microscopic sections of woody stems and roots. Bot. Gaz. 1936. 98(1):198-99. DOI: 10.1086/334628 [CrossRef]
Petri L. Sulle cause di arresto di sviluppo dell’ ovario nel fiore dell’ olivo. Atti. R. Accad. Lincei [Rome] Rend. Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. e Nat. 1920. 29:472-77. 1:
Pirotta R. Osservazioni sul flore dell’ olivo. Atti. R. Accad. Lincei [Rome] Rend. Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. e Nat. 1919. 28:1-9. 2:
Ruby M. J. Recherches morphologiques el biologiques sur L’Olivier—et sur ses varieties cultivees en France. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. 1917. 20(1):1-287.
Sax K., Abbe E. C. Chromosome numbers and the anatomy of the secondary xylem in the Oleaceae. Jour. Arnold Arboretum. 1932. 13(1):37-48.
Schnarf K. Contemporary understanding of embryo-sac development among angiosperms. Bot. Rev. 1936. 2(12):565-85.
Strasburger E. Strasburger’s text-book of botany. 1921. 5th Eng. ed. London: MacMillan and Co., Ltd. 799p. DOI: 10.5962/bhl.title.1250 [CrossRef]
Tufts W. P., Morrow E. B. Fruit-bud differentiation in deciduous fruits. Hilgardia. 1925. 9(1):1-14. DOI: 10.3733/hilg.v01n01p002 [CrossRef]
Weber G. F. Th. Vergleichend-morphologische Untersuchungen iiber die Oleaceen-Blüte. Ztschr. Wiss. Biol. Abt. E. Planta. 1928. 6(4):591-658.
Also in this issue:Agricultural marketing orders: Under enabling legislation California marketing programs now interwoven in economic structure of some of state's products
Ungrafted vineyard rootstock: Eradication of unproductive rootstock vines by treatment with chemicals tested in Sonoma and Santa Clara counties
Improved oat variety: Resistant to drought, shattering and stem rust, the new Indio shows promise
Lygus bug injury to carrot seed: Pest can cause 50% or more loss of carrot seed crop unless controlled by three properly timed 10% DDT dust applications
Effectiveness of wind machines: Frost protection by ramjet or conventional wind machines in deciduous orchards depends on the strength of the inversion
Worm infestation of tomatoes: Western yellow-striped armyworm on tomatoes controlled in second year of trials conducted in San Joaquin County fields
Harvester for canning fruit: Exploratory trials with cling peaches and Bartlett pears to evaluate feasibility of shaking fruit onto catching frame
Defoliation of hydrangea: Chemical defoliation of hydrangea plants obtained rapidly and without injury to flower buds by prestorage treatment
Orange tortrix on avocados: Pest becoming of increasing economic importance on certain varieties of avocado in some orchards in the coastal areas
Ontogeny and structure of the phloem of tobacco
The multinucleate condition in fibers of tobacco