Single and multiple fiber tests for determining comparative breaking loads of wool fibers
AuthorsJ. F. Wilson
E. B. Roessler
Authors AffiliationsJ. F. Wilson was Associate Professor of Animal Husbandry and Associate Animal Husbandman in the Experiment Station; E. B. Roessler was Instructor in Mathematics and Junior Statistician in the Experiment Station.
Hilgardia 11(4):173-182. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v11n04p173. January 1938.
Abstract does not appear. First page follows.
For many years wool technologists have tested the breaking load and the breaking stress of wool by using individual fibers. The number of fibers that must be broken individually in order to yield mean values of significance varies mostly with the uniformity of diameter of the fibers constituting the sample. Most staples or locks of wool, even from a small area on a purebred animal of an improved breed, will contain some fibers twice as coarse as others lying almost contiguous in the same sample. Among the breeds less improved from the standpoint of wool production, a lock taken from a small spot on the shoulder of the animal, where presumably the least variation might be found, may show differences as high as 400 per cent in fiber diameter. The sheep breeder aims to produce animals with uniform fleeces in which fiber diameter is the same over all parts of the body. As yet, however, man’s effort to hasten the evolution of the sheep has not resulted in fleeces which can be called uniform if judged by standards for commodities other than wool. A staple of wool may be exceedingly uniform by comparison with a similar staple from another individual; but if its component fibers are compared in uniformity of diameter with drawn copper wire or with the fibers from a single cotton plant, the comparison is discouraging. In the field of wool production, therefore, uniformity is relative, not absolute.
As these statements indicate, though the accurate determination of the mean breaking load of one staple of wool may require x fibers, a similar determination for a less uniform staple may require 2x or 3x fibers. Obviously, too, such a determination, even on the very best wools, necessitates the use of relatively large numbers of fibers. The engineer may be able to test ten bars of a steel alloy and say with some certainty just what strains will cause rupture; the wool investigator cannot base conclusions on so small a number.
Considerations other than diameter variations must also be reckoned with in determining the breaking load of wool.
 Waters R. Pink-rot of wool. New Zeal. Jour. Agr. 1932. 44(1):35-38.
 McMurtrie Wm. Wool and other animal fibers. 1886. Washington: Govt. Printing Office. 613p.
 Matthews J. M. The textile fibers. 1904. New York City: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1053p.
 Hill J. A. Studies on strength and elasticity of the wool fiber. Wyoming Agr. Exp. Sta. Sup. to 21st Ann. Rept. 1911. pp.1-139.
 Wilson J. F. The influences of the plane of nutrition upon various factors related to wool production. Natl. Wool Grower. 1931. 21(12):23-28.
 Wilson J. F. Combing tests with individual wool fleeces. Textile Research. 1934. 4(12):570-82. DOI: 10.1177/004051753400401205 [CrossRef]
 Hill J. A. Report of the wool specialist. Wyoming Agr. Exp. Sta. 21st Ann. Rept. 1911. pp.79-83.
Also in this issue:The water rights situation: Increasing population and complexities of distribution of state's water supply comprise problem of major proportions
Allocations of ground water: Economic implications of the court reference procedure for allocating ground water important in its development and use
Recharge studies: Refilling underground water reservoirs problem to many governmental agencies
Watershed management: Good practices required for the optimum production of forage and water yields demonstrated by results of long term study
Water conservation districts: Problems in the use of the public district for ground-water management require organizational flexibility in procedures
Quality of irrigation waters: Primarily determined by mineral constituents and the total salt concentration in water applied for agricultural purposes
Reclaimed water: Sewage effluents as source of irrigation water attracting increasing attention
Water-soil-plant relations: Soil moisture-plant growth relations are influenced by many factors including soil type, plant root systems and weather
Grapes and deciduous fruits: Irrigation of deciduous orchards and vineyards influenced by plant-soil-water relationships in individual situations
Ornamental crop production: Irrigation technics and dependable soil mixes basic to maximum production and minimum growing costs in industry
Factors in cotton irrigation: Quality of cotton fiber not materially affected by different irrigation treatments in experiments on three types of soil
Water temperature in irrigation: Cold water damage to rice can be controlled by use of small unshaded warming basins before water is applied to fields
Measurement of soil moisture: Accurate instruments for measuring soil moisture conditions practical means of determining proper timing of irrigation
Water penetration of soils: Soil and water management practices important in coping with widespread problem of soil penetration by irrigation water
Moisture movement in soils: Experiments show moisture movement from one portion of soil to another and soil factors which influence that movement
Costs of irrigation water: Distance of transport, height of lift and timing of pumping operations influence costs of irrigation water to farmers
Irrigation efficiency study: Increasing demands on water necessitate efficient irrigation practices to apply correct amount of water at proper time
Surface irrigation: Changing conditions and requirements affect water-application practices
Prefabricated ditch linings: Effectiveness of various types of liners in small irrigation ditches under study for control of seepage and vegetation
Sprinkler and lateral spacing: Distribution of irrigation water applied by sprinklers improved by proper spacings of sprinklers and laterals
Corrosion of aluminum pipe: Corrosion of unprotected aluminum irrigation pipe can lead to serious problem under one or more of several conditions
Drainage cost survey: Earth moving in northern California estimated at 15c to 20c per cubic yard
Drainage adiacent to a river: Investigation on use of pumped well for field drainage of river seepage conducted on farm in Sacramento delta area
Drainage in irrigated deserts: Efficient design, installation, and maintenance of drainage systems essential to avoid crop damage by high soil salinity
The determination of yield and shrinkage of wool by scouring small samples