Some nutritional aspects in mottle-leaf and other physiological diseases of citrus
AuthorA. R. C. Haas
Author AffiliationsA. R. C. Haas was Associate Plant Physiologist in the Experiment Station, Riverside.
Hilgardia 6(15):483-559. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v06n15p483. April 1932.
Abstract does not appear. First page follows.
One of the chief purposes in the growing of citrus in artificial cultures is to help to interpret the growth of citrus in the field. The factors involved in the field are often too complex or too numerous to allow cause and effect to be distinguished, and even in artificial cultures with soil the results may not be easy to interpret.
The growth of citrus in sand or solution cultures, while frequently reducing the number of factors involved, requires first of all a knowledge of how to grow healthy citrus over a period of years instead of days or weeks. There is as yet no reproducible standard citrus plant for a given environment. Through the shortcomings in efforts to adjust the environment to obtain healthy growth, knowledge is frequently acquired concerning physiological disease.
The physiology of citrus is far from being understood. It is believed that the system that connects the leaves with the rootlets and soil is very complex. The intermediate root, trunk, and twigs have important functions interrelated with both extremities of the tree. In the present paper attention has been given mainly to the producing of symptoms, without stressing the complexity of the systems involved. It is hoped that further difficulties in the growing of healthy citrus under controlled conditions over long periods of time will add stimulus in overcoming and eventually understanding the difficulties.
Some of the more important physiological diseases of citrus are mottle-leaf, chlorosis, salt or tipburn, deficiency effects, and many others. Mottle-leaf is by far the most important of these and perhaps the most baffiing in its causes and control. Among the many possible explanations of mottle-leaf in citrus are an inadequate supply of nitrogen, an excess of nitrogen, lack of humus, deficiencies of certain elements, toxic minerals in soils and irrigation water, and organic soil toxins. Some of these nutritional aspects in physiological diseases of citrus form the basis of the present paper.
Method of Growing Citrus Cultures
Solutions Employed.—In solution cultures with cuttings the solution employed by Hoagland has been, with slight modification, extensively used in these experiments.
 Allison R. V., Bryan O. C., Hunter J. H. The stimulation of plant response on the raw peat soils of the Florida Everglades through the use of copper sulphate and other chemicals. Florida Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1927. 190:33-80.
 Bishop W. B. S. Distribution of manganese in plants and its importance in plant metabolism. Australian Jour. Exp. Biol. and Med. Sci. 1928. 5:125-140. DOI: 10.1038/icb.1928.9 [CrossRef]
 Davis M. B. Investigations on the nutrition of fruit trees. Some effects of deficiencies of nitrogen, potassium, calcium and magnesium, with special reference to the behavior of certain varieties of apple trees. Jour. Pomol. and Hort. Sci. 1930. 8:316-344.
 Dixon B. E. The determination of small quantities of beryllium in rocks. Analyst. 1929. 54:268-274. DOI: 10.1039/an9295400268 [CrossRef]
 Fischer Hellmut. The analytical chemistry of beryllium. I. Determination of beryllium in the presence of iron, especially in iron-beryllium alloys. Jour. Inst. Metals. 1930. 42:536 [Cf. Chem. Abs. 24: 3456, 1930.]
 Gilbert B. E., McLean F. T. A “deficiency disease”: the lack of available manganese in a lime-induced chlorosis. Soil Sci. 1928. 26:27-31. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-192807000-00002 [CrossRef]
 Haas A. R. C. The permeability of living cells to acids and alkalies. Jour. Biol. Chem. 1916. 27:225-232.
 Haas A. R. C. Pot cultures with barley in soil from a long-time fertilizer experiment. Bot. Gaz. 1923. 75:95-102. DOI: 10.1086/333139 [CrossRef]
 Haas A. R. C. Water-solubility of dry matter in relation to calcium nutrition of normal orange and lemon leaves. Bot. Gaz. 1928. 85:334-340. DOI: 10.1086/333845 [CrossRef]
 Haas A. R. C. Mottle-leaf in citrus artificially produced by lithium. Bot. Gaz. 1929. 87:630-641. DOI: 10.1086/333967 [CrossRef]
 Haas A. R. C. Toxic effect of boron on fruit trees. Bot. Gaz. 1929. 88:113-131. DOI: 10.1086/333985 [CrossRef]
 Haas A. R. C. Boron as an essential element for healthy growth of citrus. Bot. Gaz. 1930. 89:410-413. DOI: 10.1086/334073 [CrossRef]
 Haas A. R. C., Batchelor L. D., Thomas E. E. Yellows or little leaf of walnut trees. Bot. Gaz. 1928. 86:172-192. DOI: 10.1086/333888 [CrossRef]
 Haas A. R. C., Halma F. F. Sap concentration and inorganic constituents of mature citrus leaves. Hilgardia. 1931. 5:407-424.
 Haas A. R. C., Klotz L. J. Some anatomical and physiological changes in citrus produced by boron deficiency. Hilgardia. 1931. 5:175-197.
 Haas A. R. C., Klotz L. J. Further evidence on the necessity of boron for health in citrus. Bot. Gaz. 1931. 92:94-100. DOI: 10.1086/334179 [CrossRef]
 Haas A. R. C., Thomas E. E. Effect of sulphate on lemon leaves. Bot. Gaz. 1928. 86:345-354. DOI: 10.1086/333904 [CrossRef]
 Halma F. F., Haas A. R. C. Solubility changes of inorganic constituents in citrus cuttings. Bot. Gaz. 1931. 91:213-218. DOI: 10.1086/334141 [CrossRef]
 Hillebrand W. F. The analysis of silicate and carbonate rocks. U. S. Dept. Interior Geol. Surv. Bul. 1919. 700:1-285.
 Jacobson H. G. M., Swanback T. R. Manganese toxicity in tobacco. Science. 1929. 70:283-284. DOI: 10.1126/science.70.1812.283 [CrossRef]
 Kelley W. P. The function of manganese in plants. Bot. Gaz. 1914. 57:213-227. DOI: 10.1086/331262 [CrossRef]
 Kelley W. P., Cummins A. B. Composition of normal and mottled citrus leaves. Jour. Agr. Research. 1920. 20:161-191.
 Kolthoff I. M. The detection of traces of beryllium and the colorimetric determination of this element. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 1928. 50:393-395. DOI: 10.1021/ja01389a022 [CrossRef]
 Lee H. A., McHargue J. S. The effect of a manganese deficiency on the sugar cane plant and its relationship to Pahala blight of sugar cane. Phytopathology. 1928. 18:775-786.
 Lipman C. B. The poor nitrifying power of soils, a possible cause of “die-back” (exanthema) in lemons. Science n. s. 1914. 39(1011):728-730. DOI: 10.1126/science.39.1011.728 [CrossRef]
 Marshall C. E. Microbiology. 3d ed. 1921. Philadelphia: Blakiston. 1043p.
 McGeorge W. T. The chlorosis of pineapple plants grown on manganiferous soils. Soil Sci. 1923. 16:269-274. DOI: 10.1097/00010694-192310000-00004 [CrossRef]
 McHargue J. S. The occurrence of copper, manganese, zinc, nickel, and cobalt in soils, plants, and animals, and their possible function as vital factors. Jour. Agr. Research. 1925. 30:193-196.
 McHargue J. S., Shedd O. M. The effect of manganese, copper, zinc, boron and arsenic on the growth of oats. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 1930. 22:739-746. DOI: 10.2134/agronj1930.00021962002200080010x [CrossRef]
 Miller L. P. Manganese deficiency in sand cultures. Amer. Fertilizer. 1928. 68:21-22.
 Parsons C. L., Barnes S. K. Separation and estimation of beryllium. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 1906. 28:1589-1595. DOI: 10.1021/ja01977a007 [CrossRef]
 Petar Alice V. Beryllium and beryl. U. S. Dept. Commerce Bur. Mines, Information Cir. 1929. 6190:1-20.
 Band F. V. Pecan rosette, its histology, cytology and relation to other chlorotic diseases. U. S. Dept. Agr. Dept. Bul. 1922. 1038:1-42.
 Reed H. S., Haas A. R. C. Studies on the effects of sodium, potassium, and calcium on young orange trees. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Paper. 1923. 11:1-33.
 Reed H. S., Haas A. R. C. Nutrient and toxic effects of certain ions on citrus and walnut trees with especial reference to the concentration and pH of the medium. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Paper. 1924. 17:1-75.
 Samuel G., Piper C. S. Manganese as an essential element for plant growth. Ann. Appl. Biol. 1929. 16:493-524. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.1929.tb07630.x [CrossRef]
 Schreiner O., Dawson P. R. Manganese deficiency in soils and fertilizers. Indus. and Eng. Chem. 1927. 19:400 DOI: 10.1021/ie50207a023 [CrossRef]
 Skinner J. J., Ruprecht R. W. Fertilizer experiments with truck crops. I. Celery and lettuce on Leon fine sand. II. Tomatoes on calcareous Glade soil. III. Truck crops with manganese on calcareous Glade soil. Florida Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1930. 218:5-65.
 Sommer A. L. Further evidence of the essential nature of zinc for the growth of higher green plants. Plant Physiology. 1928. 3:217-221. DOI: 10.1104/pp.3.2.217 [CrossRef]
 Sommer. A. L., Lipman C. B. Evidence on the indispensable nature of zinc and boron for higher green plants. Plant Physiology. 1926. 1:231-249. DOI: 10.1104/pp.1.3.231 [CrossRef]
 Tutin F. LX. The pectin content of normal and “silvered” apple leaves. Biochem. Jour. 1925. 19:414-415.
 Vaile R. S. Fertilizer experiments with citrus trees. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1922. 345:465-512.
 Wallace T. Leaf scorch on fruit trees. Ann. Report of the Agr. and Hort. Res. Sta., Univ. of Bristol. 1928. 1928:67-75.
 Willis L. G. Response of oats and soy beans to manganese on some coastal plain soils. North Carolina Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1928. 257:1-13.
 Zimmerman P. W. Oxygen requirements for root growth of cuttings in water. Amer. Jour. Bot. 1930. 17:842-861. DOI: 10.2307/2435691 [CrossRef]