Hilgardia
Hilgardia
Hilgardia
University of California
Hilgardia

The structure and development of flowers in Ficus carica L.

Author

Ira J. Condit

Author Affiliations

Ira J. Condit was Associate Professor of Subtropical Horticulture.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 6(14):443-481. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v06n14p443. April 1932.

PDF of full article, Cite this article

Abstract

Abstract does not appear. First page follows.

The botanical and horticultural literature of the cultivated fig is voluminous and had its beginning in ancient times. Some ancient writers treated such subjects as caprification, varieties, and pests in greater or less detail. Recent European investigators have added materially to our knowledge of fig morphology and the peculiar relations existing between the fig, the caprifig, and the pollinating insect.

Perusal of the literature, however, reveals many discrepancies and gaps in our knowledge of the structure and development of fig flowers. Accounts of the development of the macrogametophyte are very incomplete and practically nothing is found concerning the development of the microgametophyte. It is the purpose, therefore, of this paper to cover as completely as possible the detailed floral morphology of Ficus carica, both by description and by illustration. This may help to prevent in the future such confused accounts as are now current in botanical and horticultural textbooks written by authors who are not personally familiar with the peculiar life history of the fig.

Before proceeding with the morphological details it may. be well to review briefly some of the facts regarding the nature of the fig and the caprifig and the habits of the pollinating insect. Such facts are of common knowledge to growers of Smyrna. figs and to practical horticulturists in fig districts but are somewhat shrouded in mystery or lacking in clarity to many others.

Literature Cited

Borthwick H. A. Development of the macrogametophyte and embryo of Daucus carota. Bot. Gaz. 1931. 92: p. 23-44. 32 figs. DOI: 10.1086/334175 [CrossRef]

Condit I. J. Caprifigs and caprification. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1922. 319:341-377. 23 figs. (Out of print.)

Condit I. J. Fruit-bud and flower development in Ficus carica. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc. 1926. 23: p. 259-263.

Condit I. J. Cytological and morphological studies in the genus Ficus. I. Chromosome number and morphology in seven species. Univ. California Pubs. Bot. 1928. 11:233-244. pl. 7.

Cook O. F. Figs with misplaced scales. Jour. Heredity. 1922. 13:122 123. figs. 16, 17.

Cotte J., Reynier A. La dioecie du figuier et Blastophaga psenes L. Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. 1923. 88: p. 500-502.

Coulter J. M. The endosperm of angiosperms. Bot. Gaz. 1911. 52:380-385. DOI: 10.1086/330667 [CrossRef]

Czempyrek H. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Schwärmerbildung bei der Gattung Cladoplwra. Archiv. für Protist. 1930. 72: 433p. 452. 10 figs.

Devisé R. La figure achromatique et la plaque cellulaire. La Cellule. 1922. 32:249-307. pls. 1-4.

Dixon H. H. Note on the nuclei of the endosperm of Fritillaria imperialis. Royal Irish Acad. Proc. 3rd ser. 1895. 3:pp.721-726. pl. 24.

Eisen G. Biological studies of figs, caprifigs, and caprification. California Acad. Sci. Proc. 2nd ser. 1896. 5:pp.897-1002.

Frye T. C. A morphological study of certain Asclepiadaceae. Bot. Gaz. 1902. 34:389-413. pls. 13-15. DOI: 10.1086/328303 [CrossRef]

Goodspeed T. H. Parthenogenesis, parthenocarpy, and phenospermy in Nicotiana. Univ. California Pubs. Bot. 1915. 5: p. 249-272. pl. 35.

Grandi G. Studio morfologico e biologico della Blastophaga psenes. Bol. Lab. Ent. R. Ist. Super. Agr. Bologna. 1929. 2: p. 1-147. pl 1. text figs. 1-47.

Harper R. A. Cell division in sporangia and asci. Ann. Bot. 1899. 13:467-525. pls. 24-26.

Harper R. A. Cell and nuclear division in Fuligo varians. Bot. Gaz. 1900. 30: p. 217-251. pl. 14. DOI: 10.1086/328038 [CrossRef]

Johnson D. S. Studies of the development of the Piperaceae, II. Amer. Jour. Bot. 1914. 1:357-397. text figs. 113-121. pls. 21-23. DOI: 10.2307/2435118 [CrossRef]

Leclerc du Sablon M. Sur la symbiose du figuier et du blastophage. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. [Paris]. 1907. 144:146-148.

Leclerc du Sablon M. Observations sur les diverses formes du figuier. Rev. Gen. Bot. 1908a. 20:129-150. 207-216. 15 figs.

Leclerc du Sablon M. Structure et developpement de l’albumen du caprifiguier. Rev. Gen. Bot. 1908b. 20:14-24. text figs. 1-6. pl. 6.

Longo B. Ricerche sul fico e sul caprifico. R. Accad. Lincei Atti. Rend., ser. 5. 1906. 15:373-377.

Longo B. Osservazioni e ricerche sul Ficus carica. Annali di Bot. 1909. 7: p. 235-256. 3 figs.

Longo B. Sul Ficus carica. Annali di Bot. 1911a. 9: p. 415-432.

Longo B. Su la pretesa esistenza del micropilo nel Ficus carica. Annali di Bot. 1911b. 9: 197p. 198. 2 figs.

Longo B. Sur le Ficus carica en Italie. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. [Paris]. 1912a. 155: p. 433-435.

Longo B. Ancora sul Ficus carica. Annali di Bot. 1912b. 10: p. 147-158.

Moeller J. Mikroskopie der Nahrungs und Genussmittel aus dem Pflanzenreiche. 1886. Berlin: J. Springer. iv + 394p. 308 figs.

Nothnagel M. Fecundation and formation of the primary endosperm nucleus in certain Liliaceae. Bot. Gaz. 1918. 66:143-161. pl. 3-5. DOI: 10.1086/332320 [CrossRef]

Penzig O. Pflanzen-Teratologie. 1894. 2: Genoa: A. Ciminago. p. 1-594.

Ravasini R. Die Feigenbäume Italiens und ihre Beziehungen zu einander. 1911. 174: Bern: M. Drechsel. 61 figs.

Ravasini R. Sul Ficus carica- risposta al Prof. B. Longo. Archiv. Farm. e Sci. Affini. 1912a. 1: p. 14-31.

Ravasini R. Ancora sul Ficus carica. Archiv. Farm. e Sci. Affini. 1912b. 1: p. 85-116.

Rixford G. P. Smyrna fig culture. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bul. 1918. 732:1-43. 12 figs.

Saame O. Über Kernverschmelzung bei der karyokinetischen Kernteilung im protoplasmatischen Wandbelag des Embryosacks von Fritillaria imperialis. Berichte Deutsch. Bot. Gesell. 1906. 24: p. 300-303. Taf. 14.

Sax K. The behavior of the chromosomes in fertilization. Genetics. 1918. 3:309-327. pls. 1, 2.

Schnarf K. Embryologie der Angiospermen. Linsbauer’s Handbuch der Pflanzenanatomie. 1929. 10: Berlin: G. Borntraeger. 1-689. 66 figs.

Schürhoff P. N. Amitosen von Riesenkern im Endosperm von Ranunculus aeer. Jahr. Wiss. Bot. 1915. 55: p. 499-519. Taf. 3, 4.

Solms-Laurach H. G. Die Herkunft, Domestication und Verbreitung des gewöhnlichen Feigenbaums. Abh. Konig. Gesell. Wiss. 1882. 28:1-106.

Soltwedel F. Freie Zellbildung im Embryosack der Angiospermen. Jenaische Zeit. Naturwiss. 1882. 15:341-380. Taf. 18.

Soueges R. Developpment de Pembryon ches l’Urtica pilulifera L. Bul. Soc. Bot. France. 1921. 68: p. 172-188. 49 figs.

Strasburger E. Zellbildung und Zelltheilung. 1880. 3rd ed. Jena: G. Fischer. 392p. 14 pls.

Strasburger E. Lehrbuch der Botanik. 1895. Jena: G. Fischer. 556p. 594 figs.

Swingle D. B. Formation of the spores in the sporangia of Rhizopus nigricans and of Phycomyces nitens. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Pl. Ind. Bul. 1903. 37: p. 1-40. pls. 1-6.

Timberlake H. G. Development and structure of the swarm spores of Hydrodictyon. Wisconsin Acad. Sci. Arts, Letters Trans. 1902. 13: p. 486-522. pls. 29, 30.

Tischler G. Untersuchungen über die Entwicklung des Endosperms und der Samenschale von Corydalis cava Naturhist. Med. Ver. Heidelberg. 1900. 6: p. 351-380. Taf. 8, 9.

Tischler G. Über die Entwicklung der Samenanlagen in parthenokarpen Angiospermen-Fruchten. Jahr. Wiss. Bot. 1912. 52:12-30. text figs. 1-5. Taf. 1, figs. 1-14.

Tischler G. Allgemeine Pflanzenkaryologie. Linsbauer’s Handbuch Pflanzenanatomie. 1922. 2: Berlin: G. Borntraeger. 1-899. 406 figs.

Traub H. P., s. Fraps G. Ripening and composition of the Texas Magnolia fig. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Proc. 1928. 25:306-310. 2 figs.

Treub M. L’organe femelle et l’embryogenese dans le Ficus hirta Vahl. Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg. 1902. 18: p. 124-157. pls. 16-25.

Winton A. L. The microscopy of vegetable foods. 1916. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons. xiv + 701p. 589 figs.

Condit I. 1932. The structure and development of flowers in Ficus carica L.. Hilgardia 6(14):443-481. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v06n14p443
Webmaster Email: wsuckow@ucanr.edu