The action of Phomopsis californica in producing a stem-end decay of citrus fruits
Author AffiliationsMonir Bahgat was Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of California.
Hilgardia 3(6):153-181. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v03n06p153. April 1928.
Abstract does not appear. First page follows.
The aim of this investigation was to study the parasitism of Phomopsis californica Fawc., especially as to the manner in which the organism affects the different tissues of citrus fruits.
This fungus is similar to Phomopsis citri, which causes stem-end rot and melanose in Florida. P. californica was found by Fawcett (1922, 1924, 1926) to be the causal agent of decorticosis (shell bark) of lemon trunks and of a leathery, pliable stem-end rot of citrus fruits.
Of the various citrus fruits inoculated, lemons proved to be the most susceptible to this decay. The stem end, which is the usual place for beginning of decay under natural conditions, was also found to be the ideal place for infection under laboratory conditions. Wounds or punctures always facilitated infection.
It was noted that certain tissues of the lemon fruit were readily invaded by the fungus, while others remained free from invasion. The cells of the loose parenchyma tissues of the inner portion of the rind, known as the albedo, and those forming the axis of the fruit, known as the core, as well as the vascular bundles, were the elements most commonly attacked.
Albert R., Buchner E., Rapp R. Herstellung von Dauer-Hefe mittels Acetone. Ber. Chem. Gesell. 1902. 35:2376 DOI: 10.1002/cber.190203502214 [CrossRef]
Bartholomew E. T. Internal decline of lemons. II. Growth rate, water content, and acidity of lemons at different stages of maturity. Amer. Jour. Bot. 1923. 10:117-126. DOI: 10.2307/2435359 [CrossRef]
Bartholomew E. T., Robbins W. J. Internal decline (endoxerosis) of lemons. IV. The carbohydrates in the peel of healthy and endoxerotic fruits. Am. Jour. Bot. 1926. 13:342-354. DOI: 10.2307/2435435 [CrossRef]
Bourquelot E. Les ferments solubles de l’Aspergillus niger. Soc. Myc. Fr. Bul. 1893. 9:230-238.
Bourquelot E., Herissey H. Les ferments solubles du Polyporus sulphurous. Soc. Myc. Fr. Bul. 1895. 11:235-239.
Camp A. F. Citric acid as a source of carbon for certain Citrus fruit-destroying fungi. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 1923. 10:213-298. DOI: 10.2307/2394080 [CrossRef]
Cooley J. S. A study of the physiological relations of Sclerotinia cinerea (Bon.) Schröter. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 1914. 1:291-326. DOI: 10.2307/2990078 [CrossRef]
Crabill C. H., Reed H. S. Convenient methods for demonstrating the biochemical activity of micro-organisms with special reference to the production and activity of enzymes. Biochem. Bul. 1915. 4:30-44.
Duggar B. M. Fungous diseases of plants. 1909. New York: Ginn and Co. 508p. p. illus. DOI: 10.2307/199655 [CrossRef]
Fawcett H. S. A new Phomopsis of Citrus in California. Phytopath. 1922. 12:419-424.
Fawcett H. S. Shell bark (decorticosis) of lemon trees, some investigations and observations. Calif. Citrograph. 1924. 9:330
Fawcett H. S., Lee H. A. Citrus diseases and their control. 1926. 582: New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. 205p. fig. 15 colored plates
Haas A. R. C. The reaction of plant protoplasm. Bot. Gaz. 1917. 63:232-235. DOI: 10.1086/332009 [CrossRef]
Haas P., Hill T. G. An introduction to the chemistry of plant products. 1917. London: Longman’s Green, and Co. 411p. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.1913.tb05714.x [CrossRef]
Harter L. L., Weimer J. L. Studies in the physiology of parasitism with special reference to the secretion of pectinase by Rhizopus tritici. Jour. Agr. Res. 1921. 21:609-625.
Hawkins L. A., Harvey R. B. Physiological study of the parasitism of Pythium de baryanum Hesse on the potato tuber. Jour. Agr. Res. 1919. 18:275-298.
Kellerman K. F., McBeth I. G. The fermentation of cellulose. Centralbl. f. Bakt. 1912. 34:485-494.
McBeth I. G., Scales F. M. The destruction of cellulose by bacteria and filamentous fungi. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Pl. Ind. Bul. 1913. 266:1-52.
Reed H. S. The enzyme activities involved in certain fruit diseases. Virginia Agr. Exp. Sta. Rept. 1913. 1911-12:51-77.
Ross L. S. On the structure and development of the lemon. Bot. Gaz. 1890. 15:262-267. pl. 16 DOI: 10.1086/326576 [CrossRef]
Rumbold C. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Biologie holzzerstörender Pilze. Naturwiss. Zeitschr. f. Forst u Landw. 1908. 6:81-140.
Smith R. E. A new apparatus for aseptic ultrafiltration. Phytopath. 1917. 7:290-293.
Also in this issue:California spinach: Economic status in 1948 reviewed and trends in marketing considered
Raisin grapes: Study shows way to reduce picking operations and speed up harvest
Sulfur burn in citrus: Radioactive sulfur used in studies to distinguish between fruit-contained and applied sulfur
Longer-lived alfalfa: Transference of resistance to bacterial wilt gives promise of greater productivity
New insecticides: Effectiveness and limitations of chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides not yet fully determined
Storage of citrus fruits: Studies indicate use of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T sprays on trees prolong storage life of citrus fruits
Dairy cattle nutrition: Eneray, Protein, Mineral and vitamin requirements for maintenance and production
Milk production records: Continued dairy herd improvement possible when breeding program i s based on adequate records
Almond hulls: Tested as feed for dairy cattle and lambs showed promise and limitations in value
New pomegranate mite: Russeting and cracking of peel characterize injury responsible for much culling
Cannibalism in poultry: Causes of problems complex and probably involve nutrition, genetics and management
Sweet corn hybrids: Effects on hybrid varieties when 2,4-D is used in sprays for weed control