A preliminary study of petroleum oil as an insecticide for citrus trees
AuthorsE. R. deOng
Joseph C. Chamberlin
Authors AffiliationsE. R. deOng was Assistant Entomologist in Experiment Station; Hugh Knight was Assistant in Entomology, Citrus Experiment Station, resigned; Joseph C. Chamberlin was Assistant in Entomology, Citrus Experiment Station, resigned.
Hilgardia 2(9):351-386. DOI:10.3733/hilg.v02n09p351. January 1927.
Abstract does not appear. First page follows.
The general purpose of this investigation was a study of petroleum oils in relation to their availability as insecticides for use on citrus trees. This involved selection, first on the basis of tree tolerance, and secondly on the basis of insecticidal value. The data thus far obtained and the conclusions derived therefrom are believed to be of sufficient importance to justify this preliminary report. Investigations along the more promising lines opened up by the study are still in progress.
While the several phases of this investigation were conducted coöperatively and with free consultation between the authors, portions of the work were of necessity carried out semi-independently. Thus the selection of oils by foliage testing and the development of the chemical aspect of the paper have been largely the work of deOng at Berkeley and in southern California, while the insecticidal tests proper, together with their accompanying developments, were principally the joint work of Knight and Chamberlin at Riverside. The authors are indebted to H. J. Quayle for valuable suggestions and criticisms.
 Quayle H. J. Resistance of certain scale insects in certain localities to hydrocyanic acid fumigation. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1922. 15:400
 Gray Geo. P., deOng E. R. Laboratory and field tests of California petroleum insecticides. Indus. Eng. Chem. 1925. 18:175-180.
 Volck W. H. Spraying with distillates. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1903. 153:1-31.
 Magness J. R., Burroughs A. M. Apple storage investigations. 1921-22. Canton, Pa.: Marble Lab. Rept.
 Burroughs A. M. Effects of oil sprays on fruit trees. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 1923. 1923:269-277.
 Edeleanu L. Refining petroleum by liquidified sulfur dioxide. Amer. Inst. Min. Eng. Bul. 1914. 93:2313
 Moore Wm. A study of the toxicity of kerosenes. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1918. 11:70-75.
 Fawcett Howard S. A spotting of citrus fruits due to the action of oil liberated from the rind. California Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 1916. 266:261-269.
 Tinkle P., Draper H. D., Hildebrand J. H. The theory of emulsification. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 1923. 45:2780-2788.
 Bhatnagar S. S. Studies in emulsions. Jour. Chem. Soc. 1921. 119:61 DOI: 10.1039/ct9211900061 [CrossRef]
 Parsons Leon W., Wilson O. G. Jr. Some factors affecting the stability and inversion of oil-water emulsions. Jour. Indus. Eng. Chem. 1921. 13:1116-1123. DOI: 10.1021/ie50144a010 [CrossRef]
 deOng E. R., Knight Hugh. Emulsifying agents as an inhibiting factor in oil sprays. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1925. 18:424
 Schafer Geo. D. How insecticides kill. Parts 1 and 2. Michigan Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. 1911. 11:1-65.
 Schafer Geo. D. How insecticides kill. Part 3. Michigan Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bul. 1915. 21:1-67.
 Siegler E. H., Popenoe C. H. The fatty acids as contact insecticides. Jour. Econ. Ent. 1925. 18:292-299.
Also in this issue:Farm tenancy: Practices changing in relationship between farm owner and tenant
Citrus pest control: Studies made of results from the addition of 2,4-D to oil sprays
Fertilization of celery: Adequate supply of nitrogen required for best yields
Alternate bearing of avocado: May be corrected eventually by one of two possible solutions to problem
Abscission: Chemical control of shedding or dropping of plant parts
Fruit-stem die-back: Reduction is extra benefit of application of 2,4-D to citrus for fruit drop control
Weed control: Effectiveness of soil treatment compared with contact sprays in rank growing crops
Control of rats and mice: Effectiveness requires continuous application of proven methods
Onion seed yields increased: By adequate supply of irrigation water
Wood pocket: May be result of virus or toxin in parent tree in certain strain of Lisbon lemon
Sulfa drugs tested: For control of coccidiosis, pullorum, typhoid and cholera in chickens
Aphid control on potatoes: Experimental plots near Arvin and Shafter used to test effectiveness of insecticides
Swine production: Development of bacon-type hog considered by California growers