Hilgardia
Hilgardia
Hilgardia
University of California
Hilgardia

Research and reason can minimize foodborne and waterborne illnesses

Authors

Dean O. Cliver
Edward R. Atwill

Authors Affiliations

D.O. Cliver is Professor, Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, UC Davis; E.R. Atwill is Extension Veterinarian and Assistant Professor, Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, UC Davis.

Publication Information

Hilgardia 51(2):8-14. DOI:10.3733/ca.v051n02p8. March 1997.

PDF of full article, Cite this article

Abstract

Several outbreaks of foodborne and waterborne illness have directed the nation's attention to intestinal pathogens that are threats to public health. Among these pathogens are Cryptosporidium parvum and Escherichia coli O157:H7, which are known to infect and to be spread by not only humans, but also livestock and various species of wildlife. New regulations aimed at controlling these pathogens are being implemented, despite a shortage of scientific information about their ecology, how they contaminate food and water supplies, and how to detect and eliminate such contamination. Research is needed to address these issues and to develop better technologies for pathogen detection, water treatment and food processing.

References

Armstrong GL, Hollingsworth J, Morris JG Jr. Emerging foodborne pathogens: Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a model of entry of a new pathogen into the food supply of the developed world. Epidemiol Rev. 1996. 18((1)):29-51.

Atwill ER. Assessing the link between range-land cattle and waterborne Cryptosporidium parvum infection in humans. Rangelands. 1996. 19((2)):48-51.

Bell BP, Goldoft M, Griffin PM, et al. A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7-associated bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome from hamburgers: the Washington experience. JAMA. 1994. 272((17)):1349-53. doi:10.1001/jama.272.17.1349 https://doi.org/doi:10.1001/jama.272.17.1349 PubMed PMID: 7933395

Dupont HL, Chappell CL, Sterling CR, et al. The infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum in healthy volunteers. N Engl J Med. 1995. 332:855-9. doi:10.1056/NEJM199503303321304 https://doi.org/doi:10.1056/NEJM199503303321304 PubMed PMID: 7870140

[EPA] Environmental Protection Agency. National primary drinking water regulation: enhanced surface water treatment requirements. Federal Register 1994. 59(145) 58.

Klesius PH, Hayes TB, Malo LK. Infectivity of Cryptosporidium sp. isolated from wild mice for calves and mice. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1986. 189:192-3. PubMed PMID: 3744976

MacKenzie WR, Hoxie NJ, Proctor ME, et al. A massive outbreak in Milwaukee of cryptosporidium infection transmitted through the public water supply. N Engl J Med. 1994. 331((3)):161-7. doi:10.1056/NEJM199407213310304 https://doi.org/doi:10.1056/NEJM199407213310304

Snyder DE. Indirect immunofluorescent detection of oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum in the feces of naturally infected raccoons (Procyon lotor). J Parasitol. 1988. 74:1050-5.

[USDA] U.S. Department of Agriculture. Food Safety and Inspection Service. The final rule on pathogen reduction and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems Background Papers, July 1996 1996.

Webster JP, McDonald DW. Cryptosporidiosis reservoir in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in the U.S. Epidemiology and Infection. 1995. 115:207-9. PubMed PMID: 7641834

Cliver D, Atwill E. 1997. Research and reason can minimize foodborne and waterborne illnesses. Hilgardia 51(2):8-14. DOI:10.3733/ca.v051n02p8
Webmaster Email: wsuckow@ucanr.edu